Intolerable, perillosa, imprescindible: intel·lectuals i polítics estadounidencs davant la problemàtica de la propaganda al període d'entreguerres (1919-1939)

Dario Migliucci

Resum

El present article es proposa reconstruir el debat intel·lectual sobre manipulació de l'opinió pública que es va desenvolupar als Estats Units en el període d'entreguerres. S'analitzaran a més les activitats contra la propaganda que van ser dutes a terme per exponents del món de la cultura, d'una banda, i pels poders executiu i legislatiu, per una altra. La hipòtesi de la recerca és que al llarg del període d'entreguerres es va anar configurant als Estats Units una forma particular d'entendre la propaganda, una visió pedagògica de les activitats de persuasió que perduraria en el temps, convertint-se en una peculiaritat de la nació nord-americana.

Paraules clau

Propaganda; Opinió pública; Període d'entreguerres; Estats Units

Text complet:

PDF (Español)

Referències

ADAMS, Dale, “Saludos Amigos: Hollywood and Fdr’s Good Neighbor Policy”, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 24-3 (2007).

ADORNO, Theodor W., “A Social Critique of Radio Music”, The Kenyon Review, VII-2 (primavera 1945).

AUERBACH, Jonathan, y CASTRONOVO, Russ (eds.), The Oxford handbook of propaganda studies, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.

AUXIER, George W., “Middle Western Newspapers and the Spanish American War, 1895-1898”, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 26-4, (marzo 1940).

BENJAMIN, Louise M., “Defining the Public-Interest and Protecting the Public-Welfare in the 1920s - Parallels between Radio and Movie Regulation”, Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television, 12-1 (1992).

BENJAMIN, Louise, “Working It out Together: Radio Policy from Hoover to the Radio Act of 1927”, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 42-2 (primavera 1998).

BENNET, Todd, “The Celluloid War: State and Studio in Anglo-American Propaganda Film-Making, 1939-1941”, International History Review, 24/1 (Marzo 2002).

BERNAYS, Edward L., Cristalizando La Opinión Pública, Barcelona, Gestión 2000 [1923], y Propaganda, Barcelona, Melusina, 2008 [1928].

BROOMEM Edwin C., et alii, Report of the Committee on Propaganda in the Schools. Presented at the Atlanta meeting of the National Education Association, Washington, D.C., July, 192.

BRYCE, James, The American Commonwealth, James Bryce, Macmillan, 1889.

CAMPBELL, Stuart, Secrets of Crewe House: the story of a famous campaign, Londres, Hodder and Stoughton, 1920.

CANES-WRONE, Brandice, Who leads whom?: Presidents, policy, and the public, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2006.

CATLIN, George E. GORDON, “Propaganda as a Function of Democratic Government”, en Childs, Harwood L. (ed.), Propaganda and Dictatorship: A Collection of Papers, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1936.

CHAFEE, Zechariah Jr., “Freedom of Speech in War Time”, Harvard Law Review, 32-8 (junio 1919).

CHAFEE, Zechariah Jr., Free Speech in the United States, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1941.

CHAFEE, Zechariah Jr., Freedom of Speech, Nueva York, Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.

CHAFEE, Zechariah Jr., The Inquiring Mind, Nueva York, Harcourt, Brace, 1928.

CHAMBERS, John Whiteclay II, “The Movies and the Antiwar Debate in America, 1930-1941”, Film & History, 36-1 (2006).

CHERRINGTON, Ben M., “The Division of Cultural Relations”, The Public Opinion Quarterly, 3-1 (enero 1939).

CHILDS, Harwood L., A Reference Guide To The Study Of Public Opinion, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1934.

COLE, Robert, “Anglo-American Anti-Fascist Film Propaganda in a Time of Neutrality: The ‘Great Dictator’, 1940”, Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television, 21-2 (junio 2001).

COLLINS, Sue, “Propaganda Studies, The US Interwar Years”, en VALDIVIA, Angharad N. (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, Malden, MA, Wiley Blackwell, 2013.

Cornell University website, “Office of Public Opinion Research Collection”, <https://ropercenter.cornell.edu/office-of-public-opinion-research-collection> .

CREEL, George, “America’s Fight for World Opinion”, Everybody’s Magazine, 40 (febrero 1919).

CREEL, George, How We Advertised America: the First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Committee on Public Information That Carried the Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the Globe, Nueva York y Londres, Harper & brothers, 1920.

CUTLIP, Scott M., The Unseen Power: Public Relations: A History, Hillsdale, N. J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994.

DEMPSEY, J. M., y GRUVER, Eric, “‘The Public Interest Must Dominate’: Herbert Hoover and the Public Interest, Convenience, and Necessity”, Journal of Radio & Audio Media, 19-1 (2012).

DEWEY, John, The Public and Its Problems, Nueva York, Holt, 1927.

DODGE, Raymond, “The Psychology of Propaganda”, Religious Education: The official journal of the Religious Education Association, 15-5 (1920).

DOOB, Leonard, Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique, Nueva York, Henry Holt and Co., 1935.

ELLIS (ed.), Elmer, Education against Propaganda, Seventh Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies, 1937.

FILLER, Louis, The Muckrakers, Harcourt, Brace and Company Inc., 1939.

FINCH, Lynette, “Psychological propaganda: The war of ideas on ideas during the first half of the twentieth century”, Armed Forces and Society, 26-3 (primavera 2000).

FREUD, Sigmund, La interpretación de los sueños, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2001 [1899].

GALLUP, George H. y RAE, Saul F., The pulse of democracy: The public opinion poll and how it works, Nueva York, Simon and Schuster, 1940.

GARTH, Jowett y O’DONNELL, Victoria, Propaganda and Persuasion, Los Angeles, Sage, 2014.

GARY, Brett, The nervous liberals: propaganda anxieties from world war I to the cold war, Nueva York, Columbia Univeristy Press, 1999.

GIENOW-HECHT, Jessica C. E., “The World Is Ready to Listen: Symphony Orchestras and the Global Performance of America”, Diplomatic History, 36/1 (enero 2012).

GIRONA i DURAN, Ramon, “Franklin D. Roosevelt i Frank Capra: missatges per a un país en crisi”, Treballs de Comunicació, 24 (2009), pp. 182-188.

GLANDER, Timothy, Origins of Mass Communications Research during the American Cold War: Educational Effects and Contemporary Implications, Mahwah NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

GREENBERG, David, “Lippmann vs. Mencken: Debating Democracy”, Raritan, 32-2, (otoño 2012).

HAMLIN, Hunter C., Propaganda and Myth in Time of War: comprising the war myth in United States History; Educators present arms: the use of schools and colleges as agents of war propaganda, Nueva York, Garland Pub., 1973 [1927].

HANIGHEN, Frank y ENGELBRECHT, H. C., Merchants of Death: A Study of the International Armament Industry, Nueva York, Dodd and Mead, 1934.

HANSI y TONNELET, y E., A travers les lignes ennemies. Trois années d‘offensive contre le moral allemand, París, Payot & cie, 1922.

HOBBS, Renee, y MCGEE, Sandra, “Teaching about Propaganda: An Examination of the Historical Roots of Media Literacy”, Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6-2 (2014), pp.56-67.

INSTITUTE FOR PROPAGANADA ANALYSIS, “How to Detect Propaganda”, Propaganda Analysis, 1-2 (noviembre 1937).

KIDD, Benjamin, The Science of Power, Londres, Methuen & Company, 1919; Wilfred Trotter, Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, Londres, T. F. Unwin ltd., 1921.

KOPPES, Clayton R., y Black, Gregory D., Hollywood Goes to War: How Politics, Profits, and Propaganda Shaped World War II Movies, Nueva York, The Free Press, 1987.

LASSWELL, Harold D.; CASEY, Ralph D., y SMITH, Bruce LANNES, Propaganda and Promotional Activities: An Annotated Bibliography, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1935.

LASSWELL, Harold D.; CASEY, Ralph D., y SMITH, Bruce LANNES, Propaganda, communication, and public opinion: a comprehensive reference guide, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1946.

LASSWELL, Harold Dwight, Democracy through Public Opinion, Menasha, WI, George Banta Publishing Company, 1941.

LASSWELL, Harold Dwight, Propaganda Technique in the World War, Nueva York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1927.

LAVINE, Harold, y WECHSLER, James, War Propaganda and the United States, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1940.

LE BON, Gustave, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, Nueva York, The Macmillan Co., 1886.

LEE, Alfred MCCLUNG y LEE, Elizabeth BRIANT, “Mr. Dies Goes to Town”, Propaganda Analysis, 3-4 (15-1-1940).

LEE, Alfred MCCLUNG y LEE, Elizabeth BRIANT, The Fine Art of Propaganda: A Study of Father Coughlin’s Speeches, Nueva York, Harcourt Brace and Co., 1939

LEE, Ivy Publicity: Some of the Things It Is and Is Not, Nueva York, Industries Publishing, 1925.

LINDSAY, Vachel, The art of the moving picture, Nueva York, Macmillan, 1915.

LIPPMANN, Walter, El público fantasma, [Santander], G9 ediciones, 2011 [1925].

LIPPMANN, Walter, La opinión pública Buenos Aires, Compañía General Fabril, 1964 [1922].

LIPSKY, Abram, Man the puppet: the art of controlling minds, Nueva York, Frank-Maurice, inc., 1925.

LOÏC, Charles, y GIRAUD, Yann, “Economics for the Masses: The Visual Display of Economic Knowledge in the United States (1910-45)”, History of Political Economy, 45-4 (invierno 2013).

LUCONI, Stefano, “The Italian-language press, Italian American voters, and political intermediation in Pennsylvania in the Interwar Years”, The International Migration Review, 33-4 (invierno 1999).

LUMLEY, Frederick Elmore, The Propaganda Menace, The Century co., 1933.

MACLEISH, Archibald, A time to speak: the selected prose of Archibald MacLeish, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1941.

MAINER, Carmen, “El cine norteamericano durante la gran depresión (1929-1939)”, Fotocinema, Revista Científica de Cine y Fotografía, 6 (2013).

MARKS, Berry Alan, The Idea of Propaganda in America, University of Minnesota, 1957.

MARSHALL, John, “Interview with Ernst Kris regarding the study of totalitarian communication in wartime,” 100 Years: The Rockefeller Foundation, <http://rockefeller100.org/items/show/3871> .

MARSHALL, John, “Interview with Frank Stanton and Paul Lazarsfeld regarding the Princeton radio project,” 100 Years: The Rockefeller Foundation, <http://rockefeller100.org/items/show/3888> .

MATTHEWS, Joseph BROWN y SHALLCROSS, Ruth Enalda, Partners in Plunder: The Cost of Business Dictatorship, Nueva York, Covici, Friede, 1935.

MCDOUGALL, William, The group mind, a sketch of the principles of collective psychology, with some attempt to apply them to the interpretation of national life and character, Nueva York, Londres, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1920.

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BRANCH, EXECUTIVE DIVISION, GENERAL STAFF, U.S.A, Propaganda in its Military and Legal Aspects, Washington, 1919.

MILLIS, Walter, Road to War: America, 1914-1917, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1935.

MILLS, Wright C., The Power Elite, Nueva York, Oxford University Press, 1956.

MIRALDI, Robert, The Muckrakers: Evangelical Crusaders, Westport CT, Praeger Publishers, 2000.

MOCK, James Robert, y LARSON, Cedric, Words that won the war; the story of the Committee on Public Information, 1917-1919, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1939.

MONTICONE, Paul, “‘Useful Cinema’, of What Use? Assessing the Role of Motion Pictures in the Largest Public Relations Campaign of the 1920s”, Cinema Journal, 54-4 (verano 2015).

MUNSTERBERG, Hugo, The Photoplay: a Psychological Study, D. Appleton and Company, 1916.

NICOLAI, Walter, Nachrichtendienst, Presse und Volksstimmung im Weltkrieg, Berlín, Mittler, 1920.

NYE, Joseph S., Soft power: the means to success in world politics, Nueva York, Public Affairs, 2004.

ODEGARD, Peter H. The American Public Mind, Nueva York, Columbia University Press, 1930.

OSBORNE, Thomas y ROSE, Nikolas, “Do the social sciences create phenomena: the case of public opinion research”, British Journal of Sociology, 50-3 (1999).

PARKER, Gilbert, “The United States and the War”, Harper’s Magazine, 136 (marzo 1918).

PETERSON, Horace Cornelius, Propaganda for War, The Campaign against American Neutrality, 1914–1917, Norman OK, University of Oklahoma Press, 1939.

PIZARROSO QUINTERO, Alejandro, Historia de la propaganda: notas para un estudio de la propaganda política y de ‘guerra’, Madrid, Eudema, D.L. 1993.

Princeton Alumni Weekly, 1937.

“Princeton Listening Center Records”, Princeton University, Library, Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.

QUALTER, Terence H. Propaganda and psychological warfare, Nueba York, Random House, 1962.

RABE, Robert A., “Selling the Shortwaves: Commercial Broadcasting to Latin America and the Limits of the ‘American System’”, American Journalism, 24-4 (2007).

RAMÍREZ, Gracia, “Rockefeller Support for Non-Commercial Film, 1935-1939”, Rockefeller Archive Center, 2009.

RAZLOGOVA, Elena, “True Crime Radio and Listener Disenchantment with Network Broadcasting, 1935-1946”, American Quarterly, 58-1 (marzo 2006).

READ, James MORGAN, Atrocity Propaganda: 1914-1919, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1941.

RIEGEL, Oscar W. Mobilizing for Chaos: The Story of the New Propaganda, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1934.

ROSTRON, Allen, “‘No War, No Hate, No Propaganda’, Promoting Films About European War and Fascism During the Period of American Isolationism”, Journal of Popular Film and Television, 30-2 (verano 2002).

ROWLAND, Willard D., “The Meaning of ‘the Public Interest’ in Communications Policy—Part II: Its Implementation in Early Broadcast Law and Regulation”, Communication Law and Policy, 2-4 (1997).

SELDES, George, Freedom of the press, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1935, y George Seldes, Lords of the press, Nueva York, J. Messner, inc., 1938.

SELDES, George, You Can’t Print That! The truth behind the news, Nueva York, Payson & Clarke Ltd, 1929.

SINCLAIR, Upton, Money Writes!, Nueva York, A. & C. Boni, 1927.

SINCLAIR, Upton, The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism, Pasadena, Cal., el autor, 1919.

SPROULE, Michael J., Propaganda and Democracy: The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion, Cambridge-Nueva York, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

STEELE, Richard W., “The Pulse of the People: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Gauging of American Public Opinion”, Journal of Contemporary History, 9-4 (1974).

SUDMAN, Seymour, y BRADBURN, Norman M., “The Organizational Growth of Public Opinion Research in the United States”, The Public Opinion Quarterly, 51-2, (1987).

TEMKIN, Moshik, “Culture Vs. Kultur, or A Clash of Civilizations: Public Intellectuals in The United States and the Great War, 1917-1918”, The Historical Journal, 58-1 (2015).

VAUGHN, Stephen, Holding fast the inner lines: democracy, nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

VIOLAS, Paul C., “The Indoctrination Debate and the Great Depression”, The History Teacher, 4-4 (mayo 1971).

WALLAS, Graham, The great society; a psychological analysis, Nueva York, The Macmillan company, 1914.

WILKERSON, Marcus M., Public Opinion and the Spanish-American War: A Study in War Propaganda Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Studies, 1932.

WILL, Irwin, Propaganda and the News: Or, What Makes You Think So?, Nueva York, Whittlesey House, 1936.

YOURMAN, Julius, “Propaganda Techniques Within Nazi Germany”, Journal of Educational Sociology, 13/3 (Noviembre 1939).

ZAJÁCZ, Rita, “Healthy Competition? The Public Interest in International Radiotelegraphy, 1919–1940”, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53-4 (2009).

Mètriques darticles

Carregant mètriques ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2016 Dario Migliucci
Llicència de Creative Commons
Aquesta obra està subjecta a una llicència de Reconeixement 4.0 Internacional de Creative Commons