Encuentros cercanos: el papel de la cultura en los interrogatorios y pesquisas en la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Autores/as

  • Simona Tobia Teaching Fellow – UCL, UNITED KINGDOM Kluge Fellow – Library of Congress, Washington, DC Honorary Fellow – University of Reading, UNITED KINGDOM http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6368-8469

Resumen

Este artículo relata el papel de los interrogatorios militares en el servicio de inteligencia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, concentrándose sobre todo sobre la importancia de la cultura para comprender lo que llamamos el factor humano en Inteligencia en el teatro europeo de operaciones. Se argumenta que las cuestiones culturales, incluidas las relativas las lenguas, aunque no solo estas, proporcionaban un valor añadido a los interrogatorios y las entrevistas en el segundo conflicto mundial, por ejemplo por el empleo de hablantes nativos, en particular los refugiados y antiguos extranjeros enemigos. El artículo también se ocupa de algunos de los problemas de este proceso, que comportaba el maltrato a los prisioneros y en consecuencia un mal proceso de recogida de información. Se intenta también añadir el aporte de las historias orales a las fuentes de archivos, para alcanzar una mejor comprensión del papel del ser humano en los interrogatorios de los servicios de inteligencia.

Palabras clave

Prisioneros, Interrogatorios, Relaciones culturales, Ocupación, Segunda Guerra Mundial

Citas

ANDREW, Christopher, and TOBIA, Simona, Interrogation in war and conflict: a comparative and interdisciplinary analysis, London, Routledge, 2014.

ANDREW, Christopher, The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of Mi5, London, Allen Lane, 2009.

Army website, <https://www.army.mod.uk/intelligence/32235.aspx>.

BAK, Christian B., “Second World War interrogations and British foreign intelligence: the case of ELGAR”, in GELLATELY, R. (ed), The Nuremberg interviews. An American psychiatrist’s conversations with the defendants and witnesses, London, Pimlico-Random House, 2006

BELL, Falko, “‘Die deutsche Spionage ist auf Zack’. German Soldiers speak about Intelligence Services (1939–1945)”, Journal of Intelligence History, 12:1 (2013).

BELL, Falko, “‘One of our Most Valuable Sources of Intelligence’: British Intelligence and the Prisoner of War System in 1944”, Intelligence and National Security, (2015).

CENTER FOR STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH, Educing information. Interrogation, science and art: foundations for the future, Washington DC, Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, National Defense Intelligence College, 2006.

CENTER FOR STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH, Interrogation. World War II, Vietnam, Iraq, Washington DC, Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, National Defense Intelligence College, 2008.

COBAIN, Ian, Cruel Britannia. A secret history of torture, London, Portobello Books, 2012.

CORBIN, Alexander D., The history of Camp Tracy, Fort Belvoir VA, Ziedon Press, 2009.

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, U.S. Army Intelligence and Interrogation Handbook. The official guide on prisoner interrogation, Guilford, The Lyons Press, 2005.

FOOTITT, Hilary, and KELLY, Michael (eds), Languages and the military. Alliances, occupation and peace building, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012.

FOOTITT, Hilary, and KELLY, Michael (eds), Languages at war. Policies and practices of language contacts in conflict, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012.

FOOTITT, Hilary, and TOBIA, Simona, WarTalk. Foreign languages and the British war effort in Europe, 1940-47, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

FRY, Helen, Churchill’s German Army, Stroud, History Press, 2009.

FRY,Helen, Denazification : Britain's enemy aliens, Nazi war criminals and the reconstruction of post-war Europe, Stroud, History Press, 2010.

FRY, Helen, The King’s most loyal enemy aliens. Germans who fought for Britain in the Second World War, Stroud, Stutton, 2007.

FRY, Helen, The M room : secret listeners who bugged the Nazis in WW2, North Charleston, NC, Createspace, 2012.

GROSSMANN, Atina, Jews, Germans and Allies. Close encounters in occupied Germany, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2009.

HINSLEY, F.H., and SIMKINS, C.A.G., British Intelligence in the Second World War. Volume Four: Security and Counter-Intelligence, London, HMSO, 1990.

HOARE, Oliver, Camp 020. MI5 and the Nazi spies, Richmond, Public Record Office, 2000.

Imperial War Museum.

ISAACSON, Walter, Kissinger, New York, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2005.

JACKSON, Sophie, British interrogation techniques in the Second World War, Stroud, History Press, 2012.

JEFFERY, Keith, Mi6. The History of the Secret Intelligence Service, 1909-1949, London, Bloomsbury, 2010.

KIRKPATRICK, Lyman B., Combat Intelligence: a comparative report, Washington, DC, Central Intelligence Agency, 1961, p. 45.

KLEINMAN, Steven M., “The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II”, Master’s thesis, Joint Military Intelligence College Washington, DC 2002.

NARA, RG 165, Entry 179, “The activities of two agencies of the CPM Branch, MIS, G-2, WDGS”.

National Archives, The, WO 208/4970, WO 208/4970, KV 4/344, 139, FO 1005/1744

NATO, Glossary of terms and definitions, 2013, available at <http://nsa.nato.int/nsa/zPublic/ap/aap6/AAP-6.pdf>.

NEITZEL, Sönke, and WELZER, H., Soldaten. On fighting, killing and dying. The secret WWII tapes of German POWs, London, Simon & Shuster, 2012.

OVERY, Richard, “Instructive for the future: the interrogation of the major war criminals in Germany, 1945”, in ANDREW, Christopher, and TOBIA, Simona, Interrogation in war and conflict: a comparative and interdisciplinary analysis, London, Routledge, 2014.

OVERY, Richard, Interrogations: the Nazi elite in Allied hands, London, Allen Lane, 2001

PELICAN, Fred, From Dachau to Dunkirk, London, Vallentine Mitchell, 1993.

ROSENBACH, E., and PERITZ, A.J., “Confrontation or collaboration? Congress and the intelligence community. Interrogations and intelligence”, <http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/interrogations.pdf>, 2009.

STACKHOUSE, J. Ryan, “Gestapo interrogations: myths and realities” in ANDREW, Christopher, and TOBIA, Simona, Interrogation in war and conflict: a comparative and interdisciplinary analysis, London, Routledge, 2014.

TOBIA, Simona, “Invisible Violences, Interrogation and Representation in Post-War Germany” in FOOTITT, Hilary, and KNAPP, Andrew, (eds), Invisible Violences? The Image-Making of Liberal Wars since 1914, London, Bloomsbury, 2013.

TOBIA, Simona, “The Human in Human Intelligence”, in FOOTITT, Hilary, and KELLY, Michael, (eds), Languages at war. Policies and practices of language contacts in conflict, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012.

TOBIA, Simona, “Victims of war. Refugees first contacts with the British in the Second World War” in FOOTITT, Hilary, and KELLY, Michael, (eds), Languages at war. Policies and practices of language contacts in conflict, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012.

Veterans History Project, Library of Congress.

Biografía del autor/a

Simona Tobia, Teaching Fellow – UCL, UNITED KINGDOM Kluge Fellow – Library of Congress, Washington, DC Honorary Fellow – University of Reading, UNITED KINGDOM

Teaching Fellow – UCL, UNITED KINGDOM
Kluge Fellow – Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Honorary Fellow – University of Reading, UNITED KINGDOM

Publicado

31-12-2015

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.