La por dins l’història: testimonis de la Gran Guerra

Elena Carrera

Resum

Els escassos estudis existents sobre la por durant la Primera Guerra Mundial posen l'èmfasi en el canvi diacrònic i no travessen barreres lingüístiques o culturals. Ben al contrari, el present article analitza la representació de la por en diversos tipus de documents redactats en anglès, francès i alemany: cartes i diaris escrits des del front en 1914-18, textos autobiogràfics de les dues dècades següents, i articles i assajos de psiquiatria i psicologia militar publicats abans, durant i immediatament després del conflicte. Després de valorar les possibilitats i limitacions dels textos autobiogràfics com a fonts històriques, l'article examina alguns dels factors socioculturals que subjeuen a les diverses explicacions causals i justificacions que ofereixen els soldats sobre experiències de temor, pànic o por crònica, o sobre possibles estratègies per superar-lo o suportar-lo: per exemple, idees patriòtiques, creences religioses o actituds estoiques professades per alguns soldats i qüestionades per uns altres, segons la seva posició social, l'educació rebuda, la seva relació amb els seus destinataris, la situació que descriuen i les circumstàncies en què escriuen.

Paraules clau

por; soldats; Gran Guerra; cartes; diaris

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