Philippe II et les dieux

Sylvie Le Bohec


Macedonian kings kept close bonds with the divine sphere. They considered themselves as Heraklids (and, in consequence, they traced back their lineage to Zeus himself) and the kingship kept noteworthy religious functions. Philip II made wide use of this religious side and it became a key element of his public image and propaganda, both inside and outside the kingdom of Macedonia. It was especially important the relation Philip established with Panhellenic shrines, like Delphi and Olympia, in close connection with his aspiration for hegemony all over Greece. Philip also regarded his coinage as useful political tools and the religious motives engraved are very telling about the king's claims and objectives.


Originally published in Ancient Macedonia / Archaia Makedonia VI (Papers Read at the Sixth International Symposium held in Thessaloniki by the Institute of Balkan Studies (Greece): Le Bohec 2002a. Published in Karanos by kind permission of the author and the Institute for Balkan Studies.


Philip II; Macedonia; Delphi; Olympia; coinage; Zeus

Full Text:



BADIAN, E. (1981 [2012]): “The Deification of Alexander the Great”, in H. DELL (ed.): Ancient Macedonian Studies in Honor of Ch. F. Edson, Thessaloniki: 27-71 (Repr. in E. BADIAN: Collected Papers on Alexander the Great, London: 244-281).

BADIAN, E. (1996 [2012]): “Alexander the Great between Two Thrones and Heaven: Variations on an Old Theme”, in D. FISHWICK – A. SMALL (eds): Subject and Ruler: The Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity, R.A. Suppl. 17: 11-26 (Repr. in E. BADIAN: Collected Papers on Alexander the Great, London: 365-385).

BAEGE, W. (1913): De Macedonum sacris, (Diss.) Halle.

BAYNHAM, E. (1994): “The Question of Macedonian Divine Honours for Philip II”, MedA 7: 35-43.

BERVE, H. (1928): Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage, 2 vols, München.

BORZA, E. N. (1999): Before Alexander: Constructing Early Macedonia, Claremont, California.

BUCKLER, J. (1989): Philip II and the Sacred War, Leiden.

CARNEY, E. (2000): Women and Monarchy in Macedonia, Norman.

CAWKWELL, G. (1981): “Philippe et l’amphictionie”, in M. B. HATZOPOULOS – L. LOUKOPOULOU (eds): Philippe de Macédoine, Athens: 78-79.

ΧΡΥΣΟΣΤΟΜΟΥ, Π (1989-1991 [1996]): “Η λατρεία του Δία ως καιρικού θεού στη Θεσσαλία και τη Μακεδονία”, AD 44-46: 21-72, pl. 7-14.

CORVISIER, J. N. (2002): Philippe II de Macédoine, Paris.

DASKALAKIS, A. P. (1970): “L’origine de la maison royale de Macédoine et les légendes relatives de l’Antiquité”, Ancient Macedonia 1: 155-161.

DASKAPOULOS, M. (1993): Divinités et cultes en Macédoine dans l’Antiquité, (Diss,) Tours.

DUCREY, P. (1968): Le traitement des prisonniers de guerre dans la Grèce antique des origines à la conquête romaine, Paris.

DULL, S. (1977): Die Götterkulte Nordmajedoniens in römische Zeit, München.

FLACELIERE, R. – CHAMBRY, E. (trad.) (1975): Plutarque, Vies. Tome IX : Alexandre-César, Paris.

FONTEROSE, J. (1978): The Delphic Oracles. Its Reponses and Operations, Berkeley–London.

FREDRICKSMEYER, E. A. (1979): “Divine Honors for Philip II”, TAPhA 109: 39-61.

FREDRICKSMEYER, E. A. (1981): “On the Background of the Ruler Cult”, in H. DELL (ed.): Ancient Macedonian Studies in Honor of Ch. F. Edson, Thessaloniki: 145-156.

GRIFFITH, G. T. (1979): “Decline and Fall (337-336)”, in N. G. L. HAMMOND – G. T. GRIFFITH: A History of Macedonia. Vol II, Oxford: 675-698.

GÜNGERICH, R. (ed.) (1927 [1958]): Dionysii Byzantii Anaplus. Bospori, Berlin.

HABICHT, Ch. (1970): Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, München.

HAMILTON, J. R. (1969): Plutarch Alexander. A commentary, Oxford.

HAMMOND, N. G. L. (1989): The Macedonian State, Oxford.

HAMMOND, N. G. L. (1994): Philip of Macedon, London.

HATZOPOULOS, M. B. (1996): Macedonian Institutions under the Kings, 2 vols, Athens.

HAMMOND, N. G. L. (1998): “Récentes découvertes épigrafiques et gloses macédoniennes l’Hésychius”, CRAI 142: 1189-1218.

HECKEL, W. (1981): “Polyxena, the Mother of Alexander the Great”, Chiron 11: 79-86.

HUWENDIEK, G. (1996): “Zur Interpretation des Philippeion in Olympia”, Boreas 19: 155-159.

JACQUEMIN, A. (1999): Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, Paris.

ΚΑΡΑΔΗΜΗΤΡΊΟΥ, Α. Κ. (1987): “Οι Μακεδόνες βασιλείς και οι χρησμοί”, Makedonika 26: 126-138 [with an English Summary].

Λεβεντοπούλου – Γιούρη, Ε. (1971): “Το ιερόν του άμμωνος Διός παρά την Άφυτιν”, AAA 3: 356-367.

LE BOHEC, S. (2002): “The Kings of Macedonia and the Cult of Zeus in The Hellenistic Period”, in D. OGDEN (ed.): The Hellenistic World: New Perspectives, Swansea: 41-57.

LE BOHEC, S. (2007): “Philippe et les dieux”, Ancient Macedonia 6: 333-344.

LE RIDER, G. (1977): Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II de Macédoine de 359 à 294, Paris.

LE RIDER, G. (1996a): “La date des premiers statères d’or de Philippe II”, Χαρακτήρ. Αφιέρωμα στη Μάντω Οικονομίδου, Athens: 261-270.

LE RIDER, G. (1996b): Monnayage et finances de Philippe II. Un état de la question, Athens.

LEFÈVRE, F. (1998): L’amphictionie pyléo-delphique: histoire et institutions, Athens.

LEHMANN, P. W. – SPITTLE, D. (1982): Samothrace 5. The Temenos, Princeton.

LONG, C. R. (1987): The Twelve Gods of Greece and Rome, Leiden.

MACURDY, G. (1932): Hellenistic Queens: A Study of Woman-Power in Macedonia, Seleucid Syria and Ptolemaïc Egypt, Baltimore.

MARI, M. (1998): “Le Olimpie Macedoni di Dion tra Archelao e l’età romana”, RFIC 126: 137-169.

MARI, M. (2001): “Gli studi sul santurio e i culti di Samotracia: prospettive e problema”, in S. RIBICHINI – M. ROCCHI – P. XELLA (eds.): La questione delle influenze vicino-orientali sulla religione greca. Stato degli studi e prospettive della ricerca. Atti del Colloquio internationale Rome CNR 20-22/5/1999, Roma: 155-187.

MARI, M. (2002): Al di là dell’ Olimpo. Macedoni e grandi santuari della Grecia dall’età arcaica al primo ellenismo, Athens.

MILLER, S. G. (1973): “The Philippeion and Macedonian hellenistic Architecture”, AM 88: 189-218.

MORETTI, L. (1957): Olympionikai. I vincitori negli antichi agoni olimpici, Roma.

NOCK, A. D. (1930 [1972]): “Synnaos theos”, HarvStClPhil 41 [Reprinted in Essays on Religion and the Ancient World I, Oxford: 720-735].

ΠΑΝΤΕΡΜΑΛΗΣ, Δ. (2000): Δίον: Η ανακάλυψη, Athens.

PARKE, H. W. – WORMELL, D. E. W. (1956): The Delphic Oracle, vol 1, Oxford.

PLESCIA, J. (1970): The Oath and Perjury in Ancient Greece, Tallahassee.

PRESTIANNI-GIALLOMBARDO, A. M. (1982): “Lucio Mummio, Zeus e Filippo II (Favorin. Corinth, 42 – Dio Chrys., 37, 42 (466)”, AnnPisa 3.12: 513-532.

PSOMA, S. (2001): Olynthe et les Chalcidiens de Thrace. Etudes de numismatique et d’histoire, Stuttgart.

ROMANO, D. G. (1990): “Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great and the Ancient Olympic Games”, in E. C. DANIEN (ed.): The World of Philip and Alexander. A Symposium on Greek Life and Times, Philadelphia: 61-79.

DROUGOU, S. (1999): Το αρχαίο θέατρο της Βεργίνας, Thessaloniki.

SANCHEZ, P. (2001): L’amphictionie des Pyles et de Delphes: Recherches sur son rôle historique des origines au II. Siècke de notre ère, Stuttgart.

TOMLISON, R. A. (1972): Greek Sanctuaries, London.

VOUTIRAS, E. (2000): “Το ιερ του ∆ιονσουστηνφυτη”, in Μρτος. Μελτες στη µνµη της Ιουλας Βοκοτο̟ολου, Thessaloniki,631-640.

VOUTIRAS, E. (2006): “Le culte de Zeus en Macédoine avant la conquête romaine”, in A. M. GUIMIER-SORBETS – M. B. HATZOPOULOS – Y. MORIZOT (eds): Rois, cites, nécropoles. Institutions, rites et monuments en Macédoine. Actes des colloques de Nanterre (décembre 2002) et d’Athènes (janvier 2004), Athens: 333-346.

WESTERMAK, U. (1988): “The Coinage of the Chalcidian League reconsidered”, in A. DAMSGAARD-MADSEN et al. (eds.): Studies in Ancient History and Numismatics Presented to Rudi Thomsen, Århus: 91-103.

WESTERMAK, U. (1994): “Apollo in Macedonia”, in E. RYSTEDT et al. (ed.): Opus Mixtum. Essays in. Ancient Art and Society, Stockholm: 149-154.

ZACH, A. R (1902): Hesiodi Carmina, accedit Homeri et Hesiodi Certamen, Leipzig.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2020 Sylvie Le Bohec