El bienestar de los tiburones y la legislación sobre el aleteo. Un análisis del Kristin Jacobs Ocean Conservation Act

Autores/as

Resumen

Miles de tiburones son cruelmente asesinados todos los días alrededor del mundo gracias al lucrativo comercio de las aletas de tiburón. Esta práctica está impactando negativamente la vida marina ya que los tiburones son los mayores depredadores del océano, los que mantienen el delicado balance de los ecosistemas marinos. El aleteo de tiburón consiste en desprender las aletas y desechar el resto del animal. Los tiburones están vivos durante este proceso y cuando son lanzados de vuelta al agua sin sus aletas ya no pueden nadar, así que se hunden hasta el fondo donde se asfixian y/o son devorados por otros peces. Las aletas son usadas mayormente en China, Hong Kong, Taiwan y comunidades asiáticas en otras partes del mundo para la elaboración de la sopa de aleta de tiburón. Los esfuerzos para detener la práctica del aleteo de tiburón varían, desde exigir a las pesquerías que lleven los tiburones a tierra antes de cortar las aletas hasta la prohibición total de la pesca de tiburón, pasando por la prohibición del comercio de productos de tiburón. La legislación varía muchísimo entre países y estados, teniendo desde un nivel cero de protección a una protección total, por total refiriéndome a la prohibición del aleteo del tiburón, así como su posesión, venta, importación y exportación. Las implicaciones económicas del comercio de aletas de tiburón son considerables, lo que hace la aplicación de leyes y regulaciones muy difícil, pero el creciente negocio del buceo con tiburones ofrece una alternativa que nos revela que el valor de un tiburón vivo es mucho mayor a cuando se vende por partes. Analizando la legislación de los Estados Unidos, así como la internacional, se pretende mostrar las debilidades de éstas al intentar proteger al tiburón, en particular la aplicación del concepto de bienestar de los tiburones al momento de legislar en favor de ellos. El caso de estudio será el Kristin Jacobs Ocean Conservation Act, donde se investigarán y analizarán los esfuerzos legales hechos en el estado de Florida (EEUU) para detener el aleteo de tiburón y se analizarán las implicaciones legales en el bienestar de los tiburones.

Palabras clave

tiburones, océanos, producto, comercio, legislación

Citas

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Biografía del autor/a

Rosa María Cajiga, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona

Manager of the Instagram account of the Animal Law Section of the Florida Bar and collaborator of the Tierschutzbund-Zurich.  She has a Master degree in Animal Law and Society from the University Autónoma of Barcelona and obtained her Bachelor degree in Law from the University Autónoma of Queretaro, Mexico. She has professional experience in Environmental, Constitutional and Animal Law.

Publicado

09-12-2021

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