Mafia-Owned Democracies. Italy and Mexico as patterns of criminal neoliberalism

Fabio Armao

Resum

The paper is based on two preliminary hypothesis: the first is that when Organised Crime (OC) encounters politics, a third type of system emerges and this is called the mafia. The second assumption is that the mafias, particularly following 1989, greatly benefitted from the neoliberal globalisation processes. Nowadays, the mafias tend to replace the State as the privileged partners of capitalism; and, with greater efficiency than the State, are able to combine the local dimension of control (plundering or appropriation) of the territory with the global dimension of the transnational markets (particularly but not exclusively with the illicit trades). We assume that Italy and Mexico, among the consolidated democracies, are the most largely affected by the diffusion of criminal powers, to such a degree that two different patterns of mafia-owned democracy have developed: consociational in Italy, based on cooperative attitudes and behaviour between the leaders of the different groups involved – mafiosi, politicians and entrepreneurs – and therefore, characterised by greater stability; centrifugal for Mexico characterised on the other hand by strongly competitive behaviour between the various leaders involved and associated with a much greater degree of violence compared to the Italian situation. 

Paraules clau

Capitalism, Democracy, Italy, Mafia, Mexico, Neoliberalism, Organised crime.

Text complet:

PDF (English)

Referències

Arias, E. D., Goldstein, D. M. (2010), Violent Pluralism: Understanding the New De-mocracies of Latin America, in E. D. Arias and D. M. Goldstein (Eds.), Violent Democ-racies in Latin America, Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 1-34.

Arias, E. D., Goldstein, D. M. (Eds.) (2010), Violent Democracies in Latin America, Durham: Duke University Press.

Armao, F. (2000), Il sistema mafia. Dall’economia-mondo al dominio locale, Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.

Armao, F. (2014), Criminal Clusters: State and Organized Crime in a Globalised World, The European Review of Organised Crime, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 122-136.

Behan, T. (1996) The Camorra, London: Routledge.

Bloch, M. (1973), The Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Campbell, H. (2009), Drug War Zone. Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez, Austin: University of Texas Press.

Casarrubea, G. (2005), Storia segreta della Sicilia: dallo sbarco alleato a Portella della Ginestra, Milano: Bompiani.

Ciconte, E. (1992), ‘Ndrangheta dall’Unità a oggi, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Crainz, G. (2015), Italy’s Political System Since 1989, Journal of Modern Italian Stud-ies, vol. 20, n. 2, pp. 176-188.

Davis, D. E. (2009), Non-State Armed Actors, New Imagined Communities, and Shift-ing Patterns of Sovereignty and Insecurity in the Modern World, Contemporary Secu-rity Policy, vol. 30, n. 2, pp. 221-245.

Davis, D. E. (2010a), Irregular Armed Forces, Shifting Patterns of Commitment, and Fragmented Sovereignty in the Developing World, Theory and Society, vol. 39, n. 3-4, pp. 397-413.

Davis, D. E. (2010b), The Political and Economic Origins of Violence and Insecurity in Contemporary Latin America: Past Trajectories and Future Prospects, in E. D. Arias, D. M. Goldstein (Eds.), Violent Democracies in Latin America, Durham: Duke Univer-sity Press, pp. 35-62.

Della Porta, D., Vannucci, A. (1999), Corrupt Exchanges. Actors, Resources, and Mechanism of Political Corruption, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Dino, A. (2011), Gli ultimi padrini. Indagine sul governo di Cosa Nostra, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Domínguez-Ruvalcaba, H., Corona, I. (Eds.) (2010), Gender Violence at the U.S.-Mexico Border. Media Representation and Public Response, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

Duggan, C. (1989), Fascism and the Mafia, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Forgione, F. (2009), Mafia export: come ‘Ndrangheta, Cosa Nostra e Camorra hanno colonizzato il mondo, Milano: Baldini Castoldi Dalai.

Fregoso, R. L., Bejarano, C. L. (Eds.) (2010), Terrorizing Women. Feminicide in the Américas, Durham: Duke University Press.

Ginsborg, P. (2003), Italy and Its Discontents. Family, Civil Society, State, 1980-2001, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ginsborg, P., Asquer, E. (Eds.) (2011), Berlusconismo. Analisi di un sistema di potere, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Guzzini, S. (1995), The “Long Night of the First Republic”: Years of Clientelistic Im-plosion in Italy, Review of International Political Economy, vol. 2, n. 1, pp. 27-61.

Heinle, K., Rodríguez Ferreira, O., Shirk, D. A. (2014), Drug Violence in Mexico. Data and Analysis Through 2013, San Diego: University of San Diego.

Kenny, P., Serrano, M. (Eds.) (2012), Mexico’s Security Failure. Collapse into Criminal Violence, New York: Routledge.

Lijphart, A. (1977), Democracy in Plural Societies. A Comparative Exploration, New Haven, Yale University Press.

Lugo, A. (2008), Fragmented Lives, Assembled Parts. Culture, Capitalism, and Con-quest at the U.S.-Mexico Border, Austin: University of Texas Press.

Lupo, S. (2009), History of the Mafia, New York: Columbia University Press.

Massari, M. (1998), La Sacra corona unita. Potere e segreto, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Mercille, J. (2011), Violent Narco-Cartels or US Hegemony? The Political Economy of the “War on Drugs” in Mexico, Third World Quarterly, vol. 32, n. 9, pp. 1637-1653.

Mottier, N. (2009), Drug Gangs and Politics in Ciudad Juárez: 1928-1936, Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, vol. 25, n. 1, pp. 19-46.

Pansters, W. G. (2012), Zones of State-Making: Violence, Coercion, and Hegemony in Twentieth-Century Mexico, in W. G. Pansters (Ed.), Violence, Coercion, and State-Making in Twentieth-Century Mexico. The Other Half of the Centaur, Stanford: Stan-ford University Press, pp. 3-38.

Pezzino, P. (1990), Una certa reciprocità di favori. Mafia e modernizzazione violenta nella Sicilia postunitaria, Milano: Franco Angeli.

Philip, G., Berruecos, S. (Eds.) (2012), Mexico Struggle for Public Security. Organized Crime and State Responses, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Raffaele, G. (1993), L’ambigua tessitura. Mafia e fascismo nella Sicilia degli anni Venti, Milano: Franco Angeli.

Schneider, J. C., Schneider, P. T. (1976), Culture and Political Economy in Western Sicily, New York: Academic Press.

Sciarrone, R. (2009), Mafie vecchie, mafie nuove. Radicamento ed espansione, Roma: Donzelli.

Sciarrone, R. (Ed.) (2011), Alleanze nell’ombra. Mafie ed economie locali in Sicilia e nel Mezzogiorno, Roma: Donzelli.

Sciarrone, R. (Ed.) (2014), Mafie del Nord. Strategie criminali e contesti locali, Roma: Donzelli.

Staudt, K. (2008), Violence and Activism at the Border. Gender, Fear, and Everyday Life in Ciudad Juárez, Austin: University of Texas Press.

Tilly, C. (1975), Reflections on the History of the European State Making, in C. Tilly (Ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe, Princeton: Princeton Uni-versity Press, pp. 3-83.

Tilly, C. (1985), War Making and State Making as Organized Crime, in P. B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, T. Skocpol (Eds.), Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.169-191.

Wasserman, M. (1993), Persistent Oligarchs: Elites and Politics in Chihuahua, Mexi-co, 1910-1940, Durham: Duke University Press.

Watt, P., Zepeda, R. (2012), Drug War Mexico. Politics, Neoliberalism and Violence in the New Narcoeconomy, London: Zed Books.

Copyright (c) 2015 Fabio Armao
Llicència de Creative Commons
Aquesta obra està subjecta a una llicència de Reconeixement 4.0 Internacional de Creative Commons