Cómo usar QCA y SNA desde los métodos mixtos: una ilustración usando las redes de soporte en jubilados



En este artículo se propone el uso combinado del Análisis Comparado Cualitativo (Qualitative Comparative Analysis – QCA) y el Análisis de Redes Sociales (SNA) cómo estrategia metodológica para la investigación. De tal modo de ilustrar esta combinación, se demuestra la utilidad de su uso a través de su aplicación en el marco de una investigación sobre las redes de soporte de jubilados/as en Santiago de Chile. Los resultados indican que al evaluar la satisfacción de las personas mayores con respecto a sus pensiones, es necesario incorporar variables sobre sus relaciones personales dado que influyen en ello. Se concluye que le uso de esta estrategia, al ser una aproximación de métodos mixtos, ayuda en la incorporación de lo relacional en las investigaciones sociales.  

Palabras clave

Métodos mixtos, redes personales, QCA, jubilados


Bazeley, P. (2018). Integrating analyses in mixed method research. United Kingdom: SAGE publications.

Bellotti, E. (2015). Qualitative networks: mixed methods in sociological research. New York, United States: Routledge.

Borgatti, S., Everett, M. and Johnson, J. (2018). Analyzing social networks. London, United Kingdom: SAGE Publications.

Bott, E. (2009 [1957]) Family and social network. Roles, norms and external relationships in ordinary urban families. Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Burt, R. (1995). Structural holes: the social structure of competition. United States: Harvard University Press.

Burt, R. (2000). The networks structure of social capital. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 22, 345-423.

Cornwell, B., Schumm, P.L., Laumann, E., & Graber, J. (2009). Social networks in the NSHAP study: rationale, measurement, and preliminary findings. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 64B(S1), i47–i55.

Crossley, N. (2011). Towards relational sociology. New York, United States: Routledge.

Crossley, N.; Bellotti, E.; Edwards, G.; Everett, M.; Koskinen, J. and Tranmer, M. (2015). Social network analysis for ego-nets. United Kingdom: SAGE publications.

Crossley, N. & G. Edwards (2016). Cases, Mechanisms and the Real: The Theory and Methodology of Mixed-Method Social Network Analysis. Sociological Research, 21(2):13.

Dusa, A. (2019). QCA with R. A comprehensive resource. United Kingdom: Springer.

Everett, M. y Borgatti, S. (2020). Unpacking Burt’s constraint measure. Social Networks, 62, 50-57.

Fisher, M. (2011). Social Network Analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Their mutual benefit for the explanation of policy network structures. Methodological Innovations Online, 6(2), 27-51.

Froehlich, D., Rehm, M. and Rienties, B. (2020). Mixed method social network analysis. Theories and methodologies in learning and education. New York, United States: Routledge.

Hollstein, B. and Wagemann, C. (2014). Fuzzy-set analysis of network data as mixed method: personal network and the transition from school to work. En Domínguez, S. and Hollstein, B. (Eds.) Mixed method social networks research. Design and applications (pp. 237-268). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge edition.

Kemperman, A., van den Berg, P., Weijs-Perrée and Uiktdewillegen, K. (2019). Loneliness of older adults: social network and the living environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 405-422.

Kritser, B. (1996). Privatizing Social Security: The Chilean Experience. Social Security Bulletin, 59 (3), 45-55.

Krauss, C. (1998). Ideas & trends: Social security, chilean style; pensioners quiver as markets fall. The New York Times, 08/06/1998.

Lear, J. y Collins, J. (1991). Pinochet’s Giveaway. Chile’s Privatization Experience. The Multinational Monitor, 12(5), w/p.

Liu, S. (2019). Social support networks, coping and positive aging among the community-dewlling elderly in Hong Kong. Singapore: Springer.

McCarty, C., Lubbers, M., Vacca, R. and Molina, J.L. (2019). Conducting personal network research. A practical guide. New York, United States: Guilford press.

Meacham, C. (1999). Administrative reform and national economic development in Latin America and The Caribbean (post dictatorships). Policy studies review, 16(2), 41-63.

Medina, I.; Castillo, P.J.; Álamos-Concha, P. and Rihoux, B. (2017). Análisis Cualitativo Comparado (QCA). Madrid, España: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

Mitchell, J.C. (1969). The Concept and Use of Social Networks. En Mitchell, J.C. (Ed.) Social Networks in Urban Situations (pp. 1-50). Manchester, United Kingdom: University of Manchester Press.

O’Brien, G. (1981). Focus of control, previous occupation and satisfaction with retirement. Australian Journal of Psychology, 33(3), 305-318.

Olsen, W. (2012). Data collection. Key debates and methods in social research. London, United Kingdom: SAGE Publications.

Potocnik, K., Tordera, N. and Peiró, J.M. (2010). The influence of the early retirement process on satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being. International Journal of Aging and Human development, 70(3), 251-273.

Ragin, C. (2014). The comparative method. Moving beyond qualitative and quantitative strategies. California, United States: University of California Press.

Ragin, C. (2008). Redesigning Social Inquiry. Fuzzy sets and beyond. Chicago, United States: The University of Chicago Press.

Rihoux, B. (2006). Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Systematic Comparative Methods. Recent advances and remaining challenges for social science research. International Sociology, 21(5), 679-706.

Rivadeneira, C. (2017). Aquí se fabrican pobres: El sistema privado de pensiones chileno. Santiago, Chile: LOM Ediciones.

Scherman, S. (1972). Satisfaction with retirement housing: attitudes, recommendations and moves. Aging and human development, 3(4), 339-366.

Schneider, C y Wageman, C. (2012). Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Solimano, A. (2017). Pensiones a la Chilena: la experiencia internacional y el camino a la desprivatización. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Catalonia.

Song, L., Son, J. y Lin, N. (2011). Social Support. En Carrington, J. S. y Carrington, P.J. (Eds.) The SAGE handbook of social network analysis (pp. 116-128). Thousand Oaks, CA, United States: SAGE Publications.

Stevenson, W. y Greenberg, D. (2000). Agency and Social Networks: Strategies of Action in a Social Structure of Position, Opposition, and Opportunity. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(4), 651-678.

Szinovacz, M.; DeViney, S. and Davey, A. (2001). Influences of Family Obligations and Relationships on Retirement: Variations by Gender, Race, and Marital Status. Journal of Gerontology, 56B (1), S20–S27.

Tomás, J.M., Pinazo-Hernandis, S., Oliver, A., Donio-Bellegarde, M. and Tomás-Aguirre, F. (2019). Loneliness and social support: differential predictive power on depression and satisfaction in senior citizen. Journal of Community Psychology, 1-10.

Torsche, F. y Valenzuela, E. (2011). Trust and reciprocity: a theoretical distinction of the sources of social capital. European Journal of Social Theory, 14(2), 181-198.

Wasserman, S. y Faust, K. (1994). Social Network Analysis. Methods and applications. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Yamasaki, S. y Spreitzer, A. (2006). Beyond Methodological Tenets: The worlds of QCA and SNA and their benefits to policy analysis. En B. Rihoux y H. Grimm (Eds.) Innovative comparative methods for policy analysis (pp. 95-102). New York, United States: Springer.

Biografía del autor/a

Francisca José Ortiz-Ruiz, The Mitchell Centre for Social Network Analysis, The University of Manchester

PhD candidate in Sociology, at The Mitchell Centre for Social Network Analysis, The University of Manchester. 




Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.