Becoming Macedonian: Name Mapping and Ethnic Identity. The Case of Hephaistion

Jeanne Reames

Abstract

An epigraphical survey (with digital mapping component) of Greece and Magna Graecia reveals a pattern as to where Hephais-based names appear, up through the second century BCE.  Spelled with an /eta/, these names are almost exclusively Attic-Ionian, while Haphēs-based names, spelled with an alpha, are Doric-Aeolian, and much fewer in number. There is virtually no overlap, except at the Panhellenic site of Delphi, and in a few colonies around the Black Sea.

Furthermore, cult for the god Hephaistos –long recognized as a non-Greek borrowing– was popular primarily in Attic-Ionian and “Pelasgian” regions, precisely the same areas where we find Hephais-root names. The only area where Haphēs-based names appear in any quantity, Boeotia, also had an important cult related to the god. Otherwise, Hephaistos was not a terribly important deity in Doric-Aeolian populations.

This epigraphic (and religious) record calls into question the assumed Macedonian ethnicity of the king’s best friend and alter-ego, Hephaistion. According to Tataki, Macedonian naming patterns followed distinctively non-Attic patterns, and cult for the god Hephaistos is absent in Macedonia (outside Samothrace). A recently published 4th century curse tablet from Pydna could, however, provide a clue as to why a Macedonian Companion had such a uniquely Attic-Ionian name.

If Hephaistion’s ancestry was not, in fact, ethnically Macedonian, this may offer us an interesting insight into fluidity of Macedonian identity under the monarchy, and thereby, to ancient conceptualizations of ethnicity more broadly.

Keywords

Hephaistion; Hephaestion; Amyntor; Macedonian names; ethnic identity; ethnic identities; Pydna; Thessaloniki; Pella; Alexander the Great; epigraphy; digital history; digital mapping; Lexicon of Greek Personal Names; Hephaistos; Kerberoi; Hephaistos cult

Full Text:

PDF

References

ARCHIBALD, Z. H. (1998): The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked, Oxford.

ΑΡΒΑΝΙΤΌΠΟΥΛΟΣ, Θ.Σ. (1934-40): “Θεσσαλικων Επιγραφων νεαι αναγνωσεισ και συμπληρωσεισ”, Polemon 2: 1-67.

AVRAM, A. (2003): “Histria”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E. K. PETROPOULOS (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, Vol. 1, Thessalonike: 279-340.

BADIAN, E. (1961): “Harpalus”, JHS 81: 16-43.

BADIAN, E. (1982): “Greeks and Macedonians”, in B. BARR-SHARRAR – E. N. BORZA (eds.): Macedonia and Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Times. Washington: 33-51.

BARTH, F. (1969): “Introduction”, F. BARTH (ed.): Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: the Social Organization of Culture Difference, Propect Heights, IL.

BASARON, C. (2015): Parion: the Flourishing City of Ancient Troad, Vienna.

BEEKES, R. S. P. (2005): “The Origin of the Kabeiroi”, Mnemosyne 57.4: 465-477.

BEEKES, R. S. P.(2009): Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 2 vols, Leiden.

BERVE, H. (1926): Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlag, 2 vols, München.

BESSIOS, M. –TZIFOPOULOS, Y. – KOTSONAS, A. (2012): Methone I: Inscriptions, Graffiti and Trademarks on Geometric and Archaic Pottery from the ‘Ypogeio, Thessaloniki.

BILLOWS, R. A. (1990): Antigonus the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Macedonian State, Berkeley.

BOARDMAN, J. (1999): The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, London.

BORZA, E. N. (1990): In the Shadow of Olympus, Princeton (rev. ed.).

BORZA, E. N. (1993): “The Philhellenism of Archelaus”, AM 5.1: 237-244.

BRINKMANN, V. (1985): “Die aufgemalten Namensbeischriften an Nord- und Ostfries des Siphnierschatzhauses”, BCH 109: 77-130.

BRIXHE, C. – PANAYOTOU, A. (1988): “L’Atticisation de la Macédoine”, Verbum 11.245: 245-260.

BRUNT, P. A. (1976): Arrian I. Anabasis Alexandri. Books I-IV, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge.

BURCU, E. D. (2001): “Heracleia Pontica – Amastris”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E. K. PETROPOULOS (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, vol. 2, Thessalonike: 1403-1425.

BURKHERT, W. (1985): Greek Religion, Harvard.

CARNEY, E. D. (2019): Eurydice and the Birth of Macedonian Power, New York.

CLAY, J. S. – Malkin, I. – TZIFOPOULOS, Y. Z. (eds.) (2017): Panhellenes at Methone: graphê in Late Geometric and Protoarchaic Methone, Berlin.

COOK, A. B. (1940): Zeus, a Study in Ancient Religion, vol. 3, Cambridge.

CUBERA, J. – JORDAN, D. (2002/2003): “Curse Tablets from Pydna”, GRBS 43: 109-127.

DIMITRIEVITCH, K. S. et al. (2003): “Olbia-Berezan”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E. K. PETROPOULOS (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, vol. 1, Thessalonike: 389-505.

DMITRI, N. – KRISTINA, P. (2001): “Apollonia Pontica”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E. K. PETROPOULOS (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, vol. 1, Thessalonike: 95-155.

DUBOIS, L. (1996), Inscriptions grecques dialectales d’Olbia du Pont, Geneva.

DUNST, G. (1972): “Archaische Inschriften und Dokumente der Pentekontaetie am Samos”, AM 87: 99-163.

EDSON, C. F. (1970): “Early Macedonia”, AM 1: 17-44.

ELLIS, J. R. (1986): Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism, Princeton.

EHRHARDT, N.; GÜNTHER, W. (2010): “Neue Grabinschriften aus Milet”, Chiron 40: 397-426.

FARNELL, L. R. (1909): Cults of Greek States, Oxford.

FICK, A. (1909): Hattiden und Danubier in Griechenland, Göttingen.

FINLEY, M. (1951): Studies in land and credit in ancient Athens, 500-200 B.C.: The Horos-inscriptions, New Brunswick, N.J.

FRASER, P. M. – MATTHEWS, E. (1987/1994/1997/2000/2005/2010/2014): A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, vols. I-Vb, Oxford.

FURNEE, E. J. (1979): Vorgriechisch-Kartvelisches: Studium zum ostmediterranen Subtrat nebst einem Versuch zu einer neuen pelasgischen Theorie, Leuven.

GARLAN, Y. (2004): Les timbres céramiques sinopéens sur amphores et sur tuiles trouvés à Sinope. Présentation et catalogue, Paris.

GOLDSTEIN, J. A. (1968): The Letters of Demosthenes, New York.

GOLOVKO, I. D. (1996): “Ėpigrafičeskie nachodki (Epigraphische Funde)”, MASP 5: 77-88.

GRACE, V. (1947): “Wine Jars”, CJ 42.8: 443-452.

GRAKOV, B.N. (1926): “Englifi cheskie kleima na gorlakh nekotorykh ellinisticheskikh ostrodonnykh amfor”, Trudy Gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeia 1. М: 165-206.

GRAKOV, B.N. (1929): Drevnegrecheskie keramicheskie kleima s imenami astinomo, Москва́.

GRANINGER, D. (2015): “Ethnicity and Ethne”, in J. VALEVA – E. NANKOV – D. GRANINGER (eds.): A Companion to Ancient Thrace, Hoboken NJ.

GREEN, P. (1991): Alexander of Macedon: 356-323 BC, Berkeley.

GREENWALT, W. (2008): “Philip II and Olympias on Samothrace: a Clue to Macedonian Politics During the 360s”, in T. HOWE – J. REAMES (eds.): Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza, Claremont CA: 79-106.

HAMMOND, N. G. L. (1972): A History of Macedonia, vol. I, Oxford.

HALL, J. (1997): Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity, Cambridge.

HALL, J. (2001): “Contested ethnicities: perceptions of Macedonia within evolving definitions of Greek identity”, in I. Malkin (ed.): Ancient Perceptions of Greek Ethnicity, Washington DC: 159-186.

HATZOPOULOS, M. B. (1994): Cultes et rites de passage en Macédoine, Athens.

HATZOPOULOS, M. B. (1996): Macedonian Institutions under the Kings I-II, Athens.

HECKEL, W. (1991): “Hephaistion ‘The Athenian’”, ZPE 87: 39-41.

HECKEL, W. (1992): The Marshals of Alexander’s Empire, New York.

HECKEL, W. (2006): Who’s Who in the Age of Alexander the Great, Malden, MA–Oxford.

HERDA, A. (2016): “Megara and Miletos: Colonising with Apollo. A Structural Comparison of Religious and Political Institutions in Two Archaic Greek Polis States”, in A. ROBU – I. BÎRZESCU (eds.): Mégarika: Nouvelles recherches sur Mégare, les cités de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin. Archéologie, épigraphie, histoire, Paris: 15-127.

HERMAN, G. (1987): Ritualised Friendship and the Greek City, Cambridge.

HODDINOTT, R. F. (1981): The Thracians, London.

ILYINITCHNA, F. S. (2001): “Hermonassa”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E. K. PETROPOULO (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, vol. 2, Thessalonike: 1007-1045.

JEFFERY, L. H. (1961 [1990]): The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece. A Study of the Origin of Greek Alphabet and its Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C. Revised edition with a Supplement by A.W. Johnston, Oxford.

JONES, A. H. M. (2004): Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, Eugene OR (2nd ed.).

KΕΡΑΜΟΠΟΥΛΛΟΥ, A. Δ. (1936): “Eπιγραφαι εκ βοιωτιασ”, ArchEph : Chron. 23-47.

KNOEPFLER, D. (1992): “Sept années de recherches sur l'épigraphie de la Béotie (1985-1991)”, Chiron 22: 411-504.

KONTORINI, V. N. (1975): “Les concours des Grands Eréthimia à Rhodes”, BCH 99: 97-117.

LANG, G. (2003): Klassische antike Stätten Anatoliens, Band II: Larissa-Zeleia, Norderstedt.

LE RIDER, G. (1963), Deux trésors de monnaies grecques de la Propontide (IVe siècle avant J.-C.), Paris.

MAIER, F. G. (1950): Griechische Mauerbauinschiften, I, Texte und Kommentare, Heidelburg.

MANGANARO, G. (1997): “Nuove tavolette di piombo inscritte siceliote”, PdelP 44, 8.1: 306-348.

MARCADÉ, J. (1953): Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Paris.

ΜΑΣΤΡΟΚΏΣΤΑΣ, Ε. (1967): “Αρχαιοτητεσ Και Μνημεια Αιτωλοακαρνανιασ”, AD 22.B Chron.: 318-324.

MERITT, B. D. (1935): “Inscriptions of Colophon”, AJPh 56.2: 358-397.

ΜΠΆΝΟΥ, O. (1997): “Ὁ δίαυλος τῆς Πύδνας”, in Ἀρχαία ἑλληνικὴ τεχνολογία. Πρακτικὰ 1ου ∆ιεθνοῦς Συνεδροίυ, Thessaloniki: 519-523.

MERRITT, B. D. (1935): “Inscriptions of Colophon”, AJP 56: 358-397.

MILLER, D. G. (2013): Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors, Berlin.

MOUTERDE, R. (1921): “Inscriptions grecques et latines du Musée d'Adana”, Syria 2: 207-220.

Μπάνου, Ο. (1997): “Οδίαυλος της Πύδνας”, in Αρχαία ελληνική τεχνολογία. Πρακτικά του1ουδιεθνούς συνεδρίου, Θεσσαλονίκη, 4-7 Σεπτεμβρίου 1997, Θεσσαλονίκη: 519-524.

MÜLLER, S. (2011): “In Abhängigkeit von Alexander: Hephaistion bei den Alexanderhistoriographen”, Gymnasium 118.5: 429-456.

O’NEIL, J. L. (2020): “Doric Forms in Macedonian Inscriptions”, Glotta 82: 192-210.

OLCAY, N. – SEYRIG, H. (1965): Le Trésor de Mektepini en Phrygie. Trésors Monétaires Séleucides no. 1, Paris.

PARKER, R. (2007): Polytheism and Society at Athens, New York.

PATTERSON, C. (1981): Pericles’ Citizenship Law of 451-50 B.C., New York.

PETSAS, P. M. (1976). “Pydna”, in R. STILLWELL- W. L. MACDONALD – M. H. MCALISTER The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton N.J.

POSAMENTIR, R. – Coleman, R. (2011): The Polychrome Grave Stelai from the Early Hellenistic Necropolis, Austin TX.

PSAROUDAKĒS, S. (2008): “The aulos of Pydna”, in A. A. BOTH – R. EICHMANN E. HICKMANN – L.-C. KOCH (eds.): Studien zur Musikarchäologie VI. Challenges and objectives in music archaeology. Papers from the 5th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology at the Ethnological Museum, State Museums Berlin, 19-23 September 2006, Rahden, Westfalia: 197-216.

REAMES, J. (2008): “Crisis and Opportunity: the Philotas Affair…Again”, in T. HOWE – J. REAMES (eds.): Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza, Claremont CA: 165-181.

REAMES, J. (2010): “The Cult of Hephaistion”, in P. CARTLEDGE – F. GREENLAND (eds.): Responses to Oliver Stone’s Alexander, Madison: 183-217.

REAMES-ZIMMERMAN, J. (1998): Hephaistion Amyntoros: Éminence Grise at the Court of Alexander the Great, [Diss.] The Pennsylvania State University.

RIZAKIS, A. (1990): “La politeia dans les cites de la confederation acbeene (Tafel 15)”, Tyché 5: 109-134.

ROBINSON, D. M. (1910): “New Greek Inscriptions from Attica, Achaia, Lydia”, AJPh 31.4: 377-403.

ROESCH, P. (1984): “Un dicret inédit de la Ligue thébaine: et la flotte d’Epaminondas”, REG 97: 45-60.

SEARS, M. A. (2013): Athens, Thrace, and the Shaping of Athenian Leadership, Cambridge.

SCHUCHHARDT, C. (1886): “Kolophon, Notion und Klaros”, AM 11: 398-434.

SINCLAIR, R. K. (1988): Democracy and Participation in Athens, Cambridge.

SCHACHTER, A. (2004): “Evolutions of a Mystery Cult: the Theban Kabiroi”, in M. B. COSMOPOULOS (ed.): Greek Mysteries: The Archaeology and Ritual of Ancient Greek Secret Cults. New York: 315-343.

SCHWENK, C. J. (1985): Athens in the Age of Alexander, Chicago.

TATAKI, A. B. (1988): Ancient Beroea: Prosopography and Society, Athens.

TATAKI, A. B. (1994): Macedonian Edessa: Prosopography and Onomasticon, Athens.

TATAKI, A. B. (1998): Macedonians Abroad: a Contribution to the Prosopography of Ancient Macedonia, Athens.

ELEAGA, E. (2003): “Beiträge zur chronologie der Amphorenstempel und der amphoren von Heraklea Pontike”, MBAH 22: 69-113.

TOD, M. N. (1948): A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions, vol. II: 403-323 B.C., Oxford.

TOKHTAS’EV, S. – KATZ, V. I. (1997): “Ceramic Stamps of Tauric Chersonesus (The Determinant Catalogue). – 170 стр. + Таблицы (ross.)”, Hyperboreus 3-4.2: 362-404.

TSETSKHLADZE, G. R. (2001): North Pontic Archaeology: Recent Discoveries and Studies, Leiden.

VOUTYRAS, E. (1990): “Ηφαιστιων ηρωσ”, Egnatia 2: 123-173.

WALKER, K. G. (2004): Archaic Eretria. A Political and Social History from the Earliest Times to 490 BC, London.

WEST, M. L. (1997): East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth, Oxford.

WILHELM, A. (1908): “Inschriften aus Halikarnassos und Theangela”, JÖAI 11: 53-100.

WILSON, E. (1998): Consilience: the unity of knowledge, New York.

YUREVNA, S. O. (2003): “Nymphaeum”, in D. V. GRAMMENOS – E: K. PETROPOULOS (eds.): Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, vol. 2, Thessalonike: 759-802.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2020 Jeanne Reames