Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics <p><em>Isogloss</em> is a journal of theoretical and experimental linguistics, with the Romance varieties as object of investigation.</p><p>Submissions are accepted for articles on any linguistic phenomenon in any Romance variety. No specific theoretical approaches are given any preference, but the articles need to have clear implications for the theory of language and should not be only descriptive in nature.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright.</li><li>The texts published in this journal are – unless indicated otherwise – covered by the Creative Commons Spain <a title="Creative Commons" href="" target="_blank">Attribution 4.0</a> licence. You may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, provided you attribute it (authorship, journal name, publisher) in the manner specified by the author(s) or licensor(s). The full text of the licence can be consulted here: <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Roberta D'Alessandro) (Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics) Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Manner change in early French unharmonic obstruent-sonorant clusters <p>This diachronic constraint-based analysis details shifting reflexes in Proto-French (PF) and early Old French (OF) (approximately 2nd-12th centuries) towards the repair of underlying obstruent-nasal clusters, especially where the obstruent is coronal, as well as phonotactically dispreferred /tl, dl/. In earlier PF, deletion and gemination prevail, with gemination broadening scope from flat-sonority clusters to some obstruent-sonorant clusters, including /dl/ and variably obstruent-nasal. Late PF /dn/ assibilates to [zn], avoiding a suboptimal syllable-contact sonority contour, with the end result of both processes finalizing a broader coda obstruent ban before OF. Early OF ecclesiastic loanwords from Latin re-introduce underlying medial obstruent-nasal and /tl, dl/ clusters, with the cluster-final sonorant undergoing the novel repair of rhotacization (/n/ or /l/ " [r]), representing an extension of manner change seen in earlier spirantization and assibilation in the native lexicon. The unified optimality-theoretic analysis identifies and argues for a multi-stage shift in the prioritization of constraints governing the intersecting deletion, gemination, spirantization, assibilation, and rhotacization processes, and their interaction with syllabification, sonority, and phonotactics.</p> Francisco Antonio Montaño Copyright (c) 2023 Francisco Antonio Montaño Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 LexVEN <p>While there is growing awareness that knowledge of regional minority languages must be protected, assessing the vitality of such varieties is challenging due to the lack of assessment materials. Our contribution documents the creation and validation of LexVEN, a bimodal yes/no vocabulary task, with the purpose of assessing the proficiency of users of Venetan with receptive and/or productive skills. The materials will be freely available. The vocabulary items were validated in a survey with 161 speakers of Italian, of which 136 came from the Veneto area. We have relied on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) in validating test items, and we demonstrate correlations with self-reported measures of proficiency and language use. Given the absence of any other assessment tools of Venetan for cross-validation, we further collected speech samples from a subset of the Venetan participants with active proficiency whose proficiency was rated by native speakers of Venetan. We discuss the procedures within a validation framework, concluding that LexVEN is reliable as a proficiency assessment tool of Venetan.</p> Maria Ferin, Henrik Gyllstad, Ilaria Venagli, Angelica Zordan, Tanja Kupisch Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Ferin, Henrik Gyllstad, Ilaria Venagli, Angelica Zordan, Tanja Kupisch Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Not all complementisers are late <p>This paper analyses the emergence of illocutionary complementisers (in the sense of Corr 2016, 2022) through a corpus study with Catalan and Spanish children. The production of illocutionary complementisers by ten Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children in the CHILDES database is quantified and compared to the production of finite embedding complementisers. The results indicate that illocutionary complementisers emerge early in the child production data, often well before embedding complementisers first appear. These preliminary findings, which illustrate important developmental differences between kinds of complementisers, are hard to account for in approaches that take functional categories to mature bottom-up, with left-peripheral knowledge developing last. I argue, instead, that the early emergence of illocutionary complementisers favours a view which takes the C-domain to be present early on in child grammars. I finish by considering the development of Italo-Romance complementisers as a future direction, suggesting that a deeper analysis of child ‘errors’ or input-divergent utterances may provide significant insights into the theoretical questions presented, as much as grammatical ones.</p> Núria Bosch Copyright (c) 2023 Núria Bosch Sun, 27 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Towards a unified analysis of past and future tenses <p>While the literature has often highlighted the differences between the defining features of past and future tenses, little attention has been paid to the similarities that bring these linguistic forms together. Taking European Portuguese data as a point of departure, it was my goal in this paper to investigate some of the correspondences that arise between these structures. So, I will endorse the idea that, in both the past and the future domains, there are equivalent strategies to perform temporal location. Thus, tenses, such as the Pretérito Imperfeito do Indicativo (Imp) in the past or the Futuro Simples (FS) in the future, which do not display relevant temporal constraints beyond the mere location of an eventuality in an interval before or after <em>t0</em>, interact with and are more easily influenced by other semantic categories, namely aspect and modality. On the contrary, tenses that require more evident temporal restrictions, in particular the imposition of final or initial boundaries to the situations with which they are combined, such as the Pretérito Perfeito Simples (PPerf) or the construction <em>ir</em> (‘go’) + Infinitive, have in common that they are less permeable to the influence of other external factors, with temporal location being their most prominent meaning.</p> Luís Filipe Cunha Copyright (c) 2023 Luís Filipe Cunha Sun, 27 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0200 A variationist corpus analysis of the definite article with personal names across three varieties of Spanish <p>It has been shown that the presence of a definite article (DA) prior to a personal name (PN) varies not only across languages, but also across varieties of the same language. Spanish is an example of a language that demonstrates DA+PN variation across varieties. However, few studies have quantitatively analyzed this DA+PN variation. The current study examined which linguistic and social factors govern the variation of DA+PN in the speech (sociolinguistic interviews) of 54 speakers from Santiago (Chile), Mexico City, and Granada (Spain) from the online PRESEEA Corpus. Statistical analyses found that the DA+PN realizations are most favored by speakers from Santiago across all educational levels. Speakers from Santiago also favor DA+PN realizations more with female names than male names, demonstrating a gendering of language. Speakers from Mexico City and Granada demonstrated few overall DA+PN realizations, with the least realizations among those with more educational attainment, possibly indicating the effect of a standard language ideology for these communities with regard to DA+PN. Thus, not only do these varieties differ in overall frequency in which DA+PN appears to be the norm in Santiago and much less common in Granada and Mexico City, they also differ in terms of which social factors govern DA+PN realizations in each variety.</p> Robin Tieperman, Brendan Regan Copyright (c) 2023 Robin Tieperman, Brendan Regan Sat, 12 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The pronominal system of Saint-Pierre-le-Bost <p>This paper identifies several phonological and morphological issues raised by the pronominal system of the variety of Saint-Pierre-le-Bost of the French “linguistic Croissant”. An account is proposed within Strict CV (Lowenstamm 1996, Scheer 2004).</p> Noam FAUST Copyright (c) 2023 Noam FAUST Sat, 12 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Brazilian Venetan is going leísta <p>This paper discusses language variation in heritage languages, focussing on a peculiar use of the dative clitic <em>ghe</em> in Brazilian Venetan, a heritage northern Italo-Romance variety. Corpus data and grammaticality judgments by native speakers showed that, unlike homeland varieties of Venetan, the clitic is used in doubling constructions with both indirect and direct objects. Conversely, accusative clitics do not appear in doubling constructions in Brazilian Venetan, but are limited to cases of resumption of dislocated constituents. This phenomenon is compared to a parallel use of dative clitics with direct objects in some previously described <em>leísta</em> varieties of Spanish. I will show that the type of variation attested in Brazilian Venetan accusative and dative clitics depends on different conditions on cliticisation of the two elements. Specifically, while accusative clitics are pronouns that undergo a morphological process of incorporation, dative clitics are merged as agreement markers on the finite verb. The analysis also captures a diachronic change in the distribution of dative clitics in the diachrony of Venetan.</p> Alberto Frasson Copyright (c) 2023 Alberto Frasson Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Activation levels <p>In the last five decades, French wh in-situ has been the center of much work in theoretical linguistics. Nonetheless, scholars still disagree on the distribution of these constructions, and on their interpretation. While whether or not wh in-situ is necessarily presuppositional has been debated for years (Cheng &amp; Rooryck 2000, Baunaz 2011, Shlonsky 2012, a.o.), we believe this question is too narrow. Here, we investigate the ESLO 1-2 corpora of spoken French and provide a fresh understanding of in-situ questions based on the notion of ‘discourse activation’ (Dryer 1996, Larrivée 2019a, Garassino 2022). By demonstrating both the passage from a predominantly ex-situ system to a predominantly in-situ system, and a significant augmentation of <em>non</em>-context-bound in-situ occurrences, we redefine the conditions under which these structures are licenced in Hexagonal French, and how they have evolved from a micro-diachronic perspective (1970s-2010s).</p> Lena Baunaz, Caterina Bonan Copyright (c) 2023 Lena Baunaz, Caterina Bonan Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 LexSIC <p>It has been increasingly acknowledged that regional languages and dialects bear similarities with heritage languages, and that some heritage speakers are bilectal with two closely related minority languages or dialects. However, assessing the knowledge of non-standard varieties proves difficult due to the lack of assessment materials. Our contribution documents the creation and validation of LexSIC, a yes/no vocabulary task, a placement test for speakers with receptive and/or productive skills in Sicilian. The materials are freely available. The vocabulary items were validated in a survey with 100 speakers of Italian, who had varying levels of proficiency in Sicilian, including bilectal heritage speakers in Germany. We have relied on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) in validating test items and we demonstrate and discuss correlations with self-reported measures of proficiency, language use, age and education. A comparison of vocabulary proficiency in bilectals with Italian and Sicilian proficiency further shows that the two are highly correlated, which underlines a cumulative enhancement of vocabulary proficiency in bilectals. We discuss the challenges in creating assessment materials in minority languages and dialects.</p> Tanja Kupisch, Sebastiano Arona, Alexandra Besler, Silvio Cruschina, Maria Ferin, Henrik Gyllstad, Ilaria Venagli Copyright (c) 2023 Tanja Kupisch, Sebastiano Arona, Alexandra Besler, Silvio Cruschina, Maria Ferin, Henrik Gyllstad, Ilaria Venagli Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Imperatives and their interaction with VP-ellipsis in Spanish <p>In this squib, I focus on the interaction between imperative formation and head stranding ellipsis in Spanish, with the aim of reassessing Martins’ (1994) generalization that head movement from V to the polarity-encoding head Σ is a necessary condition for licensing predicate ellipsis. The author argues that Spanish affirmative imperatives, derived by head movement to Σ, behave as predicted by the theory, giving rise to a particular instance of verb stranding ellipsis. In this paper, I show that Spanish does not have the type of ellipsis she predicts in affirmative imperatives. Putative examples of V-stranding XP-ellipsis in the relevant environments are analyzed here as involving some sort of exophoric null object, consistent with Masullo’s (2017) account. Thus, Spanish contrasts sharply with Portuguese, a language which does feature this variety of ellipsis. Consequently, there are important implications for the morphosyntax of Spanish imperatives, the licensing of ellipsis and, more broadly, the theory of head movement.</p> María Florencia Silva Copyright (c) 2023 María Florencia Silva Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Diachronic change and variation in use <p>Previous studies have demonstrated that in spontaneous speech, Rioplatense Spanish speakers—in contrast to speakers of Peninsular Spanish—sometimes produce clitic-doubled accusative nominal objects. If this contrast between varieties reflects different grammatical systems, it would be expected to also affect the acceptability of clitic doubling across varieties. We tested this hypothesis in a judgment study that compared the acceptability of dative and accusative clitic-doubled objects between Rioplatense and Peninsular Spanish speakers. Speakers of both varieties showed similar preferences with dative clitic doubling, consistent with previous work. By contrast, accusative clitic doubling was highly acceptable in Rioplatense Spanish, but not in Peninsular Spanish. Based on accounts of the diachronic development of clitic doubling, we argue that the Rioplatense speakers exhibit a diachronically advanced behavior compared to Peninsular Spanish speakers.</p> Esther Rinke, Sol Lago, Carolina Andrea Gattei Copyright (c) 2023 Esther Rinke, Sol Lago, Carolina Andrea Gattei Thu, 23 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Francoprovençal: a spatial analysis of ‘partitive articles’ and potential correlates in Swiss and Italian varieties <p>In this paper, we focus on partitive articles (PAs), i.e., determiners which, generally, have an indefinite interpretation, and on one of their potential correlates, i.e., invariable de, in Francoprovençal, a non-standardized, highly endangered Gallo-Romance language (cf. Zulato, Kasstan &amp; Nagy 2018), and show the fine-grained spatial distribution of these elements in the Swiss and Aosta Valley (Italy) varieties. Presenting several maps based on fieldwork data from Valais (Switzerland) and the Aosta Valley (Italy), we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of PAs and de is more complex than reported in the literature: we complement the basic subdivision of Francoprovençal into two types, Francoprovençal A and B (cf. Kristol 2014, 2016), with a more nuanced picture, in which the morphosyntactic features of PAs play a crucial role: in Francoprovençal A, the presence of PAs depends on the syntactic context whereas, in Francoprovençal B, their presence is limited mainly to two areas, in which singular and plural PAs do not occur together (one area only has singular PAs whereas the other one only has plural PAs). We also show that there is no correlation between phonologically overt plural marking on nouns and absence of PAs; however, we found a correlation between overt <em>sigmatic</em> number marking on nouns and absence of PAs.</p> Tabea Ihsane, Olivier Winistörfer, Elisabeth Stark Copyright (c) 2023 Tabea Ihsane, Oliver Winistörfer, Elisabeth Stark Thu, 23 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0100 A Classless Analysis of Italian Nouns and their Theme-Vowel Alternations <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The decompositional, non-lexicalist, approach to word-structure and the theory of roots have proven highly rewarding. One grey area, however, comes from Romance since, rather than roots, the word structure primitive appears to be the stem: root + ‘stem-formative/theme vowel’. Regardless, there have been perspicacious decompositional accounts of Italian, however these are still marred by the large number of morphological/item-specific irregularities, motivating arbitrary noun classes. Additionally, there are roots that do not inflect: consonant-final and vowel-final forms when these are oxytonic or loanwords. Given these irregularities, previous analyses in Italian have included the use of lexical exceptions and class features. We challenge the use of class features in generating the attested patterns (and their exceptions). Instead, we propose a new categorisation of root-shapes, which, when combined with the exponents of nominal inflection, produce the correct surface pairings, as well as the non-alternating forms. In our analysis, there is no diacritic or special marking of lexical exceptions, all forms inflect regularly in accordance to their phonological shape. This requires the innovation of one new mechanism (Inhibition), but we back it up by showing that it leads to an unexpected beneficial prediction that solves a long-standing problem associated with <em>Raddoppiamento Sintattico</em> (RS).</p> </div> </div> </div> Nicola Lampitelli, Shanti Ulfsbjorninn Copyright (c) 2023 Nicola Lampitelli, Shanti Ulfsbjorninn Mon, 06 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Comprehension of double-center embedded relatives in Italian: a case for hierarchical intervention <p>Object relatives are more difficult to process than subject relatives. Several sentence processing models have been proposed to explain this difference. As double-center embedding relatives contain several long-distance dependencies, they are an ideal configuration to compare sentence processing models. The main aim of the present study was to compare the predictions of the featural Relativized Minimality approach with the ones of other relevant sentence processing models.</p> <p>57 Italian-speaking healthy adults answered comprehension questions concerning the first, second, or third verb to appear in both double-center embedding and control sentences. Results show that questions concerning the matrix verb of double-center embedding structures were significantly easier and were associated with faster response times than questions concerning the embedded verbs. Furthermore, in object double-center embedding relatives the questions concerning the verb of the most embedded clause were easier than the ones concerning the verb of the intermediate embedded clause.</p> <p>This pattern of results is consistent with featural Relativized Minimality but cannot be fully explained by other sentence processing models.<br /><br /></p> Marco Sala, Giulia Bettelli, Beatrice Giustolisi, Alessandra Vergallito, Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro, Carlo Cecchetto Copyright (c) 2023 Marco Sala, Giulia Bettelli, Beatrice Giustolisi, Alessandra Vergallito, Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro, Carlo Cecchetto Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100