Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics <p><em>Isogloss</em> is a journal of theoretical and experimental linguistics, with the Romance varieties as object of investigation.</p><p>Submissions are accepted for articles on any linguistic phenomenon in any Romance variety. No specific theoretical approaches are given any preference, but the articles need to have clear implications for the theory of language and should not be only descriptive in nature.</p> Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona en-US Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics 2385-4138 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright.</li><li>The texts published in this journal are – unless indicated otherwise – covered by the Creative Commons Spain <a title="Creative Commons" href="" target="_blank">Attribution 4.0</a> licence. You may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, provided you attribute it (authorship, journal name, publisher) in the manner specified by the author(s) or licensor(s). The full text of the licence can be consulted here: <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Grammaticalization in Seychelles Creole: the coding of reciprocity by kanmarad <p>Seychelles Creole (SC) is one of the few creoles with a grammaticalized reciprocity marker. The grammaticalized use of <em>kanmarad</em> (&lt; Fr. <em>camarade</em> ‘comrade, companion’) is mentioned in the grammars of SC (Bollée 1977; Corne 1977; Choppy 2009) but its evolution and distribution in modern SC have never been analyzed. This contribution first presents present-day data from spoken and written corpora of SC and compares them to data published in the <em>Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures</em>, APiCS (Michaelis &amp; al. 2013). Appealing to several grammaticalization mechanisms discussed in the literature, it then traces back the grammaticalization process of <em>kanmarad</em>, a process that is not very advanced in the closely related Mauritian Creole (MC). In accordance with Michaelis &amp; Haspelmath (2020), the evolution of <em>kanmarad</em> in SC can be considered to be an instance of accelerated functionalization which the authors consider to be typical of creole languages. Ultimately, the study’s findings are discussed in light of two complementary hypotheses that try to explain the acceleration of functionalization: the <em>Extra-Transparency Hypothesis</em> (Haspelmath &amp; Michaelis 2017) and the <em>Distinction during Codification Hypothesis</em> which I suggest for SC. Both are considered to be possible factors favoring an ordinary language-internal grammaticalization process.</p> Sibylle Kriegel Copyright (c) 2021 Kriegel Kriegel 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 7 1 27 10.5565/rev/isogloss.149 Te puse la mano en el hombro ‘I put my hand on your shoulder’ <p>The main goal of this paper is to provide a solution to a puzzle regarding a constraint on multiple external possession relations in Spanish prepositional double object verbs like <em>poner</em> ‘put.’ When both the direct object and prepositional object are body parts with different external possessors, the subject must be the possessor of the direct object body part and a dative clitic the possessor the prepositional object body part, not the other way around. Assuming that possessor movement to theta positions is what gives rise to external possession, I claim that the unacceptable interpretation is due to a locality violation that is incurred when an external possession relation is established between a subject and prepositional object body part that crosses over another external possession relation between a dative clitic and direct object body part.</p> Grant Armstrong Copyright (c) 2021 Grant Armstrong 2021-09-07 2021-09-07 7 1 28 10.5565/rev/isogloss.146 The fine implicative structure of European Portuguese conjugation <p class="p1">Recent literature has highlighted the extent to which inflectional paradigms are organised<br />into systems of implications allowing speakers to make full use of the inflection system<br />on the basis of exposure to only a few forms of each word. The present paper contributes<br />to this line of research by investigating in detail the implicative structure of European<br />Portuguese verbal paradigms. After outlining the computational methods we use to that<br />effect, we deploy these methods on a lexicon of about 5000 verbs, and show how the morphological and phonological properties of European Portuguese verbs lead to the observed patterns of predictability.</p> Sacha Beniamine Olivier Bonami Ana R. Luís Copyright (c) 2021 Sacha Beniamine, Olivier Bonami, Ana R. Luís 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 7 1 35 10.5565/rev/isogloss.109 The negation of cualquier NP <p>Even though the interpretation of Free Choice Items such as any has been on debate for more than 50 years (Vendler, 1974, Dayal, 1998, Horn, 2000, etc.), it is relatively more recent in Spanish (Menéndez-Benito, 2005, Giannakidou and Quer, 2013, among others). Some have analyzed it as a universal quantifier, neither taking its free choiceness into account nor contexts which seem to be problematic for the universal account (see, for instance, Etxepare and Uribe-Etxebarria, 2011).</p> <p>In this article, we defend that <em>cualquier</em> is a universal indeterminate pronoun which involves freedom of choice (as in the original proposal by Vendler, 1974). We will take into account data (taken from which has not been properly considered. We will analyze the interaction of negation and <em>cualquier</em> in Rioplantese Spanish in the subject position of negative generic statements, in the object position in negative episodic statements, and in a non argumental position. We will combine an alternative semantics approach to the analysis of the FCI <em>cualquier</em>, inspired in Menéndez-Benito (2010) and Aloni (2019), with a syntactic approach to negation inspired in Etxepare and Uribe-Etxebarria (2011).</p> <p> </p> Ana Clara Polakof Copyright (c) 2021 Ana Clara Polakof 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 7 1 24 10.5565/rev/isogloss.113 Verb Second in Old Venetian <p>This study aims to add to a rich scholarship on the presence of a verb second constraint in old (Italo-)Romance that has been argued to cause V-to-C raising of both the finite verb and one or more constituents, provided we understand this constraint to be lax in these varieties (cf. Ledgeway 2007, 2008). In particular, it analyses a late 14<sup>th</sup> century old Venetian text, corroborating the existence of this constraint within the variety. Within this study, it will be shown that the syntax of 14<sup>th</sup> century Venetian is one in which we find the gradual loss of the V2 constraint. This will be shown through a range of phenomena present within the text, such as a loss of Informational Focus fronting, the weakening of subject pronouns, and the loss of scrambling to vP<em>.</em> All in all, this study aims to shed light on the syntax of 14<sup>th</sup> century Venetian specifically, adding to a growing scholarship on what the incipient loss of the V2 constraint looks like within respective old Romance varieties.</p> Onkar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Onkar Singh 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 7 10.5565/rev/isogloss.110 From northern Italian to Asian wh-in situ: A theory of low focus movement <p>The mainstream literature on the Romance dialects of northern Italy has explained the morphosyntax of clause-internal wh-elements in answer-seeking interrogatives as either the result of interrogative movement into the lower portion of the high left periphery (Munaro et al. 2001, Poletto &amp; Pollock 2015, a.o.), or as a canonical instance of scope construal (Manzini &amp; Savoia 2005;2011). New empirical evidence from Romance suggests that there is more at stake in the computation of wh-interrogatives than we used to think, and that neither of the existing approaches to northern Italian ‘wh-in situ’ can be maintained. Here, I argue that northern Italian dialects and Asian languages are, at least in this respect, more similar than we originally thought, and then I offer a new, derivationally economic and cross-linguistically supported understanding of the morphosyntax of northern Italian wh-in situ: the theory of wh-to-foc. Accordingly, all cross-linguistic core properties of this phenomenon can be attributed to different combinations of the setting of universal micro-parameters related to the interrogative movement of wh-elements.</p> Caterina Bonan Copyright (c) 2021 Caterina Bonan 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 7 1 59 10.5565/rev/isogloss.108 Adjectives in Heritage Spanish <p>Ordering of predicative adjectives within the Noun Phrase varies cross linguistically in systematic ways (Cinque 2010). In Spanish adjectival ordering exhibits more flexibility than in English. To test the extent to which the stricter word order in English affects Spanish adjectival ordering, 35 heritage bilingual Spanish speakers living in an English dominant environment were asked to judge adjectival word orders and interpret adjective elisions. Results indicate acceptance of adjectival ordering involving roll up movement (Cinque 2010), not possible in English. They also show the ability to interpret elisions in contexts involving the same type of movement. These results provide evidence for the availability of flexible ordering in Spanish even among Spanish-English bilinguals.</p> Liliana Sánchez José Camacho Copyright (c) 2021 Liliana Sanchez, Jose Camacho 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 7 1 19 10.5565/rev/isogloss.107 "Algún" indefinite is not bound by adverbs of quantification <p>Some indefinites cannot be bound by adverbs of quantification or the generic operator. I argue that this datum follows from the internal syntax of indefinites: only those indefinites consisting of a minimal structure can be bound, bigger indefinites cannot. I present evidence from Spanish, Russian and English to support this claim. Two theoretical consequences follow. The first one is about wh-dependencies: I argue that wh-phrases cannot be regarded as noun phrases with an extra [wh] feature, but rather as very small indefinites without additional features. The second one involves exceptional scope: choice function approaches seem to run into a paradox that alternative approaches, such as Schwarszchild’s Singleton Indefinite approach, avoid. I also argue that an alternative semantic approach to binding resistance yields no fruit. Finally, I show that only small indefinites can be used as predicates, thus bolstering the approach taken in these pages.<strong></strong></p> Luis López Copyright (c) 2021 Luis López 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 7 1 26 10.5565/rev/isogloss.102 A short note on honorifics and personal articles in Spanish and Catalan and its consequences for the theory of proper names <p>Building on recent findings in Bernstein et al. (2019), regarding the syntactic distribution of personal articles in Catalan and honorifics in Spanish, I propose that they are pure expressives (in Potts’ (2005) sense) that take an entity as argument and return the same entity at the <em>at-issue</em> level and a conventionally implicated proposition in a parallel meaning dimension. If this analysis turns out to be correct, the expressive / proper name interaction in these languages will constitute a new piece of evidence against the predicative analysis of proper names. </p> <p> </p> <p>Reviewed by:<br />José Camacho<br />Francesc Roca</p> Andrés Saab Copyright (c) 2021 Andrés Saab 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 7 1 14 10.5565/rev/isogloss.142 The Romance Inter-Views: Syntax <p>The Romance Inter-Views are short, multiple Q&amp;A pairs that address key issues, definitions and ideas regarding Romance linguistics. Prominent exponents of different approaches to the study of Romance linguistics are asked to answer some general questions from their viewpoint. The answers are then assembled so that readers can get a comparative picture of what’s going on in the field.</p><p>For the first Inter-Views we selected (morpho-)syntactic research, and asked 8 syntacticians, representing four approaches to the study of Romance linguistics, to answer our questions. The approaches we selected are Cartography, Distributed Morphology, Minimalism, and Nanosyntax. The scholars we interviewed are listed hereafter.</p><p>For Cartography:<br />Luigi Rizzi, professor of Linguistics at the Collège de France;<br />Norma Schifano, lecturer in Modern Languages at the University of Birmingham. </p><p>For Distributed Morphology:<br />Karlos Arregi, associate professor in Linguistics at the University of Chicago;<br />Andrés Saab, associate researcher at CONICET, Buenos Aires and associate professor in Linguistics at the University of Buenos Aires. </p><p>For Minimalism:<br />Grant Armstrong, associate professor of Spanish Linguistics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison;<br />Caterina Donati, professor of Linguistics at the CNRS Laboratoire de Linguistique formelle, Université de Paris</p><p>For Nanosyntax:<br />Karen De Clercq, CNRS researcher at the Laboratoire de Linguistique formelle (Université de Paris).<br />Antonio Fábregas, professor of Linguistics at UIT, The Arctic University of Norway</p> Grant Armstrong Karlos Arregi Karen De Clercq Caterina Donati Antonio Fábregas Luigi Rizzi Andrés Saab Norma Schifano Copyright (c) 2021 Grant Armstrong, Karlos Arregi, Karen De Clercq, Caterina Donati, Antonio Fábregas, Luigi Rizzi, Andrés Saab, Norma Schifano 2021-02-18 2021-02-18 7 1 11 10.5565/rev/isogloss.112 Focused verbal inflections in Spanish Spanish allows to focus the Number and Person features of the verbal inflection to produce an interpretation similar to that of a contrastively focused pronoun. This squib discusses two properties distinguishing both phenomena. Carlos Muñoz Pérez Matías Verdecchia Copyright (c) 2021 Carlos Muñoz Pérez, Matías Verdecchia 2021-04-07 2021-04-07 7 1 4 10.5565/rev/isogloss.141