The Syntax of European Portuguese Resultatives



This study attempts to propose a syntactic distinction between true resultatives and pseudo-resultatives and to provide an overview of the resultative constructions in European Portuguese (EP). It has been found that true resultatives, which have causative structures and involve Manner Conflation, are not allowed in EP, contrasting to languages such as English. That is because EP (or Romance languages in general) does not allow Manner Conflation. There are some resultative-like sentences in EP, but they should belong to the pseudo-resultative category, which contains an agentive structure and exhibits semantic and syntactic differences from true resultatives. In addition, simple resultatives, which have causative structures formed with light verbs (instead of Manner verbs) are also attested in EP because no Manner Conflation is involved.


resultative, causative, European Portuguese, Romance


Alsina, Alex. 1996. Resultatives: A joint operation of semantic and syntactic structures. In M. Butt & T. H. King (eds.), Proceedings of the First LFG Workshop. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Baptista, Jorge. 2021. Construções de verbos transitivos-predicativos em português: uma perspetiva transformacional. Revista da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística (8): 10-25.

Barbosa, Pilar, & Raposo, Eduardo P. 2013. Subordinação argumental infinitiva. In E. Raposo, M. F. Nascimento, M. A. Mota, L. Segura & A. Mendes (eds.), Gramática do português, Vol. 2, 1901-1977. Lisboa: Fundação Galouste Gulbenkian.

Beavers, John, Everdell, Michael, Jerro, Kyle, Kauhanen, Henri, Koontz-Garboden, Andrew, LeBovidge, Elise, & Stephen Nichols. 2017. Two types of states: A cross-linguistic study of change-of-state verb roots. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 2(38): 1-15.

Carrier, Jill & Randall, Janet H. 1992. The argument structure and syntactic structure of resultatives. Linguistic Inquiry 23: 173–233.

Duarte, Inês, & Oliveira, Fátima. 2010. Particípios resultativos. Textos Seleccionados do XXV Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, 397-408. Lisboa: Colibri.

Folli, Raffaella, & Harley, Heidi. 2005. Flavors of v: Consuming results in Italian and English. In P. Kempchinsky & R. Slabakova (eds.), Aspectual inquiries, 95-120. Dordrecht: Springer.

Folli, Raffaella, & Harley, Heidi. 2020. A head movement approach to Talmy’s typology. Linguistic Inquiry 51(3): 425-470.

Gonçalves, Anabela. 1999. Predicados complexos verbais em contextos de infinitivo não preposicionado do português europeu. Ph.D. thesis, Universidade de Lisboa.

Halle, Morris, & Marantz, Alec. 1993. Distributed Morphology and the pieces of inflection. In K. Hale & S. Keyser (eds.), The view from Building 20, 111-176. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Halle, Morris, & Marantz, Alec. 1994. Some key features of Distributed Morphology. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 21: 275-288.

Harley, Heidi. 2005. How do verbs get their names? Denominal verbs, manner incorporation and the ontology of verb roots in English. In N. Erteschik-Shir & T. Rapoport (eds.), The syntax of aspect. Deriving thematic and aspectual interpretation, 42-64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harley, Heidi, & Noyer, Rolf. 1999. Distributed Morphology. Glot International 4: 3-9.

Haugen, Jason D. 2009. Hyponymous objects and late insertion. Lingua 119: 242-262.

Kratzer, Angelika. 2005. Building resultatives. In C. Maienborn & A. Wöllstein (eds.), Event arguments: Foundations and applications, 177-212. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

Levin, Beth, & Rappaport Hovav, Malka. 1995. Unaccusativity: At the syntax-lexical semantics interface. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Levinson, Lisa. 2010. Arguments for pseudo-resultative predicates. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 28(1): 135-182.

Marantz, Alec. 1997. No escape from syntax: Don’t try morphological analysis in the privacy of your own lexicon. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4(2): 201-225.

Marcelino, Marcello. 2014. Resultativas em português brasileiro. Veredas-Revista de Estudos Linguísticos 18(1): 121-137.

Mateu, Jaume. 2002. Argument structure: Relational construal at the syntax-semantics interface. Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona.

Mateu, Jaume. 2012. Conflation and incorporation processes in resultative construction. In V. Demonte & L. McNally (eds.), Telicity, change, and state: A cross-categorial view of event structure, 252-278. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pylkkänen, Liina. 2002. Introducing arguments. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Raposo, Eduardo P. 1981. A construção ‘união de orações’ na gramática do português. Ph.D. thesis, Universidade de Lisboa.

Rappaport Hovav, Malka, & Levin, Beth. 2001. An event structure account of English resultatives. Language 77(4): 766-797.

Simpson, Jane. 1983. Resultatives. In L. Levin, M. Rappaport Hovav, & A. Zaenen (eds.), Papers in Lexical-Functional Grammar, 143–157. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Talmy, Leonard. 1985. Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical forms. In T. Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, Vol. 3: Grammatical categories and the lexicon, 36-149. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Washio, Ryuichi. 1997. Resultatives, compositionality and language variation. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 6: 1-49.

Williams, Alexander. 2008. Word order in resultatives. In H. Haynie & C. Chang (eds.), WCCFL 26 Proceedings, 507-515. Somerville: Cascadilla Press.

Yao, J. 2022. On causatives – A comparison between European Portuguese and Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 21(3): 1–37.




Download data is not yet available.