Italian and Arbëresh (Albanian) causatives

Case and Agree

Authors

  • Anna Roussou University of Patras
  • Rita Manzini 0000-0002-5288-4210

Abstract

Causative verbs in the Albanian variety of Arbëresh take a finite complement clause, with the causee realized as a nominative or as an oblique (like the dative/instrumental causee in Italian). We argue that causatives are biclausal and that their complement is non-phasal, of different sizes (e.g., vP in Italian and IP/CP in Arbëresh). Being non-phasal, it is transparent to φ-Agree with the matrix v*. The non-phasal vP-complement in Italian triggers an ergative alignment, with the causee realized as an oblique in transitives (or accusative with intransitives/unaccusatives). This option is also available in Arbëresh under contact with Italian, although with a finite complement. The option of a nominative causee in Arbëresh is directly accounted for as φ-Agree with the embedded I. Standard Albanian (and Greek) have an accusative causee, as in English. Given that the embedded I is finite in Albanian, φ-Agree with matrix v* is an instance of hyper-raising. We argue that this option is linked to the null-subject property of Albanian. Finite I is ‘strong enough’ to label by itself (Chomsky 2015), freeing the DP to enter Agree with a higher φ-probe.

Keywords

Agree, ergative alignment, Form Copy, hyper-raising, phase

References

Alexiadou, Artemis, & Elena Anagnostopoulou. 1998. Parametrizing Agr: Word Order, V-Movement and EPP-Checking. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 16: 491–539. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006090432389

Alexiadou, Artemis, & Elena Anagnostopoulou. 2002. Raising without infinitives and the role of agreement. In A. Alexiadou, E. Anagnostopoulou, S. Barbiers, & H.-M. Gaertner (eds), Dimensions of movement. From features to remnants, 17–30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.48.02ale

Alexiadou, Artemis, & Elena Anagnostopoulou. 2021. Backward control, long distance Agree, nominative case and TP/CP transparency. In A. Mucha, J. Hartmann, & B. Trawiński (eds), Non-canonical control in a cross-linguistic perspective, 15–34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.270.01ale

Baker, Mark. 1988. Incorporation. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Baker, Mark. 2008. The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619830

Baker, Mark. 2015. Case: Its principles and its parameters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295186

Belletti, Adriana. 2020. Ways of smuggling in syntactic derivations. In A. Belletti, & C. Collins (eds), Smuggling in syntax, 13–37. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197509869.003.0002

Bidese, Ermenegildo, & M. Rita Manzini 2022. Progressive and prospective aspect in a German dialect in Italy. In H. Fischer, M. Gillmann, & M. Schmuck (eds), Aspektualität in Varietäten des Deutschen, 141–164. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. https://iris.unitn.it/handle/11572/364146

Bittner, Maria, & Kenneth Hale. 1996. Ergativity: towards a theory of a heterogeneous class. Linguistic Inquiry 27(4): 531–604. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4178953

Bobaljik, Jonathan David. 2008. Where’s phi? Agreement as a post-syntactic operation. In D. Harbour, D. Adger, & S. Béjar (eds), Phi-Theory: Phi features across interfaces and modules, 295–328. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199213764.003.0010

Brandi, Luciana, & Leonardo M. Savoia. 1990. Proprietà morfosintattiche e assegnazione del Caso nel causativo arbëresh. Rivista di Grammatica Generativa 15: 29–121.

Burzio, Luigi. 1986. Italian syntax. Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4522-7

Cardinaletti, Anna, & Giuliana Giusti. 2003. Motion verbs as functional heads. In C. Tortora (ed.), The syntax of Italian dialects, 31–49. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195136456.003.0002

Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884166

Chomsky, Noam. 1986. Knowledge of language. Its nature, origin, and use. New York: Praeger.

Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: the framework. In R. Martin, D. Michels, & J. Uriagereka (eds), Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik, 89–155. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by Phase. In Michael Kenstowicz (ed.), Ken Hale: A Life in Language, 1–54. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2013. Problems of Projection. Lingua 130: 33–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.12.003

Chomsky, Noam. 2015. Problems of projection: Extensions. In E. di Domenico, C. Hamann, & S. Matteini (eds) Structures, strategies and beyond: Studies in honour of Adriana Belletti, 3–16. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.223.01cho

Chomsky, Noam. 2019. The UCLA lectures. https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/005485

Chomsky, Noam. 2021. Minimalism: Where are we and where can we hope to go. Gengo Kenkyu 160: 1–41. https://doi.org/10.11435/gengo.160.0_1

Chomsky, Noam. To appear. The Miracle Creed and SMT. In M. Greco, & D. Mocci (eds), A Cartesian dream: A geometrical account of syntax. In honor of Andrea Moro. Rivista di Grammatica Generativa/ Research in Generative Grammar, Monograph Series (Lingbuzz Press).

Chomsky, Noam, Ángel Gallego, & Dennis Ott. 2019. Generative grammar and the faculty of language: Insights, questions, and challenges. Catalan Journal of Linguistics Special Issue, 2019: 229–261. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/catjl.288

Cinque, Guglielmo. 2006. Restructuring and Functional Heads. The Cartography of Syntactic Structures. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195179545.001.0001

Cinque, Guglielmo. 2018. On the status of functional categories (heads and phrases). Language and Linguistics 18(4): 521–576. https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.18.4.01cin

Ciutescu, Elena. 2018. Defective causative and perception verb constructions in Romance. Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Collins, Chris. 2005. A smuggling approach to the passive in English. Syntax 8(2): 81–120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9612.2005.00076.x

den Dikken, Marcel. 2017. Predication in the syntax of hyperraising and copy raising. Acta Linguistica Academica 64(1): 3–43. https://doi.org/10.1556/2062.2017.64.1.1

Dobrovie-Sorin, Carmen. 1994. The syntax of Romanian. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110886597

Donazzan, Marta. 2017. Italian causatives and the grammar of (in)direct causation. In P. Rodrigues, R. Pires de Oliveira, A. P. Quadros Gomes, & M. J. Foltran (eds), Linguística Formal, Revista Letras 96: 398–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/rel.v96i0.50948

Folli, Raffaella, & Heidi Harley. 2007. Causation, obligation, and argument structure: On the nature of little v. Linguistic Inquiry 38(2): 197–238. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4179405

Guasti, M. Teresa. 1993. Causative and perception verbs: A comparative study. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Guasti, M. Teresa. 2017. Analytical causatives. In M. Everaert, & H. van Riemsdijk (eds), The Wiley Blackwell companion to syntax, Second edition. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118358733.wbsyncom038

Hale, Kenneth. 1970. The passive and ergative in language change: The Australian case. In S. A. Wurm, & D. C. Laycock (eds), Pacific linguistics studies in honour of Arthur Capell, 757–781. Canberra: Australian National University.

Halpert, Claire. 2019. Raising, unphased. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 37:123–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-018-9407-2

Hill, Virginia. 2013. The emergence of the Romanian subjunctive. The Linguistic Review 30(4): 547 – 583. https://doi.org/10.1515/tlr-2013-0016

Hornstein, Norbert. 1999. Movement and control. Linguistic Inquiry 30(1): 69–96. https://doi.org/10.1162/002438999553968

Iatridou, Sabine. 1993. On nominative Case and a few related things. In: Papers on case and Agreement II, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19: 175–196.

Kayne, Richard. 1975. French Syntax: The Transformational Cycle. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Kayne, Richard. 1991. Romance clitics, verb movement and PRO. Linguistic Inquiry 22(4): 647–686. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4178745

Laka, Itziar. 2006. Deriving split-ergativity in the progressive: The case of Basque. In A. Johns, D. Massam, & J. Ndayiragije (eds), Ergativity: Emerging issues, 173–195. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4188-8_7

Ledgeway, Adam. 2016. From coordination to subordination: The grammaticalisation of progressive and andative aspect in the dialects of Salento. In F. Pratas, S. Pereira, & C. Pinto (eds), Coordination and subordination. Form and meaning. Selected Papers from CSI Lisbon 2014, 157–184. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Ledgeway, Adam, Schifano, Norma, & Silvestri, Giuseppina. 2018. Il contatto tra il greco e le varietà romanze nella calabria meridionale. Lingue antiche e moderne 7: 95–133. https://doi.org/10.4424/lam72018-5

Ledgeway, Adam, Schifano, Norma, & Silvestri, Giuseppina. 2020. I costrutti causativi nelle varietà romanze e greche della Calabria meridionale. In P. del Puente, F. Guazzelli, L. Molinu, & S. Pisano (eds), Tra etimologia romanza e dialettologia. Studi in onore di Franco Fanciullo, 203–217. Alessandria: Edizioni dell’Orso.

Ledgeway, Adam, Schifano, Norma, & Silvestri, Giuseppina. Forthcoming. Greek-Romance Contact: The Fading Voices of Southern Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mahajan, Anoop. 2017. Accusative and ergative in Hindi. In J. Coon, D. Massam, & L. Demena Travis (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity, 86–108. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198739371.013.4

Manzini, M. Rita. 1983. Restructuring and reanalysis. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Manzini, M. Rita. 2022. Romance causatives and ergativity. In N. Boneh, D. Harbour, O. Matushansky, & I. Roy (eds), Building on Babel’s rubble, 271–292. Presses Universitaires de Vincennes. https://doi.org/10.3917/puv.boneh.2022.01.0271

Manzini, M. Rita, & Paolo Lorusso. 2022. A bisentential syntax for a/bare finite complements in South Italian varieties. Motion verbs and the progressive. In G. Giusti, V. N. Di Caro, & D. Ross (eds), Pseudo-coordination and multiple agreement constructions, 65–98. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.274.03man

Manzini, M. Rita, & Diego Pescarini. 2022. The clitic string as a Pair Merge sequence. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 45(1): 1–37. https://doi.org/10.16995/glossa.6571

Manzini, M. Rita, & Anna Roussou. 2000. A minimalist theory of A-movement and control. Lingua 110(6): 409–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(00)00006-1

Manzini, M. Rita, Roussou, Anna, & Leonardo M. Savoia. 2016. Middle-passive voice in Albanian and Greek. Journal of Linguistics 52(1): 111–150. https://doi.or/10.1017/S0022226715000080

Manzini, M. Rita, & Leonardo M. Savoia. 2007. A unification of morphology and syntax. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203968154

Manzini, M. Rita, Savoia, Leonardo M., & Ludovico Franco. 2015. Ergative case, Aspect and Person splits: Two case studies. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 62(3): 297–351. https://doi.org/10.1556/064.2015.62.3.3

Manzini, M. Rita, & Leonardo M. Savoia. 2018. The morphosyntax of Albanian and Aromanian varieties. Berlin: de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501505140

Marantz, Alec. 2000. Case and licensing. In E. Reuland (ed.), Arguments and Case: Explaining Burzio’s generalization, 11–30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.34.04mar

Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001

Palancar, Enrique. 2008. Varieties of ergative. In A. Malchukov, & A. Spencer (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Case, 562–571. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199206476.013.0038

Pesetsky, David, & Esther Torrego. 2004. Tense, Case and the Nature of Syntactic Categories. In J. Guéron, & J. Lecarme (eds), The Syntax of Time, 495–538. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6598.003.0021

Poletto, Cecilia. 2000. The Higher Functional Field. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195133561.001.0001

Postal, Paul. 1974. On Raising. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.

Postal, Paul. 1977. Antipassive in French. Linguisticae Investigationes 1(2): 333–374. https://doi.org/10.1075/li.1.2.04pos

Rivero, Maria-Luisa. 1994. Clause structure and V-movement in the languages of the Balkans. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 12: 63–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992746

Rizzi, Luigi. 1997. The fine structure of the left periphery. In L. Haegeman (ed.), Elements of grammar, 281–337. Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5420-8_7

Roussou, Anna. 2000. On the left periphery: modal particles and complementisers. Journal of Greek Linguistics 1: 65–94. https://doi.org/10.1075/jgl.1.05rou

Roussou, Anna. 2009. In the mood for control. Lingua 119(12): 1811–1836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2008.11.010

Rouveret, Alain, & Jean-Roger Vergnaud. 1980. Specifying reference to the subject. French causatives and conditions on representations. Linguistic Inquiry 11(1): 97–202. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4178152

Salvi, Giampaolo, Skytte, Gunver, & M. Rita Manzini. 1991. Frasi subordinate all’infinito. In L. Renzi, & G. Salvi (eds), Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione, 483–570. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Savoia, Leonardo M. 1989a. Processi morfologici, proprietà di caso e accordo nel causativo arbëresh. Zjarri 33: 186–293.

Savoia, Leonardo M. 1989b. Alcune caratteristiche del causativo arbëresh. In Le minoranze etniche e linguistiche. Atti del 2° Congresso Internazionale, 363–420. Piana degli Albanesi: Comune di Piana degli Albanesi.

Sheehan, Michelle. 2020. The development of Exceptional Case Marking in Romance with a particular focus on French. Probus 32(2): 367–400. https://doi.org/10.1515/probus-2020-0002

Sportiche, Dominique. 1996. Clitic constructions. In J. Rooryck, & L. Zaring (eds), Phrase structure and the lexicon, 213–276. Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8617-7_9

Tortora, Christina. 2015. A comparative grammar of Borgomanerese. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945627.001.0001

Tubino Blanco, Mercedes. 2010. Contrasting causatives: A minimalist approach. Ph.D. thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Turano, Giuseppina. 2015. Quando caso e accordo sono disgiunti: soggetti accusativi e dativi nell’albanese e nei dialetti arbëreshë. Hylli i dritës 35(1–2): 129–154.

Turano, Giuseppina. 2018. Optional vs obligatory movement in Albanian (pseudo)-raising constructions. In M. Grimaldi, R. Lai, L. Franco, & B. Baldi (eds), Structuring Variation in Romance Linguistics and Beyond. In honour of Leonardo M. Savoia, 177–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.252.12tur

Turano, Giuseppina, & Shezaj Rrokaj. 1998. Strategia del Causativo in albanese. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 3: 551–565.

Ura, Hiroyuki. 1994. Varieties of raising and the feature-based bare phrase structure theory. MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics 7. Cambridge, MA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.

Vergnaud, Jean-Roger. 2008 [1978]. Letter to Noam Chomsky and Howard Lasnik on “Filters and Control”, April 17, 1977. In R. Freidin, C. P. Otero, & M.-L. Zubizarreta (eds), Foundational Issues in Linguistic Theory, 3–15. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262062787.003.0002

Woolford, Ellen. 1997. Four-way case systems: Ergative, nominative, objective, and accusative. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 15: 181–227. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005796113097

Wurmbrand, Susi. 2001. Infinitives. Restructuring and clause structure. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110908329

Zyman, Erik. 2023. Raising out of finite clauses (Hyperraising). Annual Review of Linguistics 9: 29–48. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-022421-070658

Published

01-03-2024

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.