Phase-edge properties and complementizer omission

Irene Franco


This paper deals with the diachrony of complementizer omission (C-omission) in some Italian clauses. C-omission is restricted to clauses with [-realis] mood in Old as well as in Modern Italian, and to some types of declarative clauses in Modern Florentine (Cocchi & Poletto, 2005). This phenomenon is instead much more pervasive in the Renaissance period (Wanner 1981, Scorretti 1991) and invests basically all types of subordinate clauses. The present study concentrates on C-omission in Renaissance Italian relative clauses, which is attested in both subject and non-subject extractions. There is a subject/non-subject asymmetry in the frequency of C-omission in relative clauses, which is claimed to result from the combination of an active vs. inactive distinction that characterizes both Old and Renaissance Italian, and the loss of V-to-C. The active vs. inactive distinction is attributed to the presence of a strong (*) feature on the low-phase head, v*, in both Old and Renaissance Italian, while the loss of (*) in CP determines the loss of V-to-C in Renaissance Italian only. The argument is corroborated by further comparative facts from Old Occitan and Old French, as well as by a contrast with Old Portuguese and Old Spanish.


Verb Second; active vs. inactive distinction; subject/object asymmetry; complementizer; phase-edge; Old Romance

Full Text:



Abels, Klaus. 2013. Phases: an essay on cyclicity in syntax. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Adams, Marianne. 1987. Old French, Null Subjects, and Verb Second Phenomena. UCLA: unpublished thesis.

Alexiadou, Artemis. & Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 1999. “Non-active morphology and the direction of transitivity alternations”. North East Linguistic Society 29. University of Delaware, 27-40.

Alexiadou, Artemis. & Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 2003. “Structuring Participles”. In Chang, C. B. & Haynie, H. J. (eds.). Proceedings of the 26th Conference in Formal Linguistics. Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Alexiadou, Artemis. & Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 2004. “Voice morphology in the causative-inchoative Alternation: evidence for a non-unified structural analysis of unaccusatives”. In Alexiadou, A., Anagnostopoulou, E. & Everaert, M. (eds.). The Unaccusativity puzzle, 114-136. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Alexiadou, Artemis; Anagnostopoulou, Elena & Schäfer, Florian. 2006. “The properties of anticausatives crosslinguistically”. In Frascarelli, M. (ed.). Phases of Interpretation, 187-212. Berlin: Mouton.

Antonelli, André. 2013. “On the Left Periphery of Spanish Complementizerless Clauses”. In Cabrelli Amaro, J. et al., (eds.). Selected Proceedings of the 16th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium,15-26. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Béjar, Susana. 2003. Phi-Syntax: A Theory of Agreement. Ph.D. thesis. University of Toronto.

Belletti, Adriana. 2001. “Speculations on the possible source of expletive negation in Italian comparative clauses”. In Cinque, G. & Salvi, G. (eds.), Current Studies in Italian Syntax. Essays offered to Lorenzo Renzi, 19-37. North Holland.

Belletti, Adriana. 2004. “Aspects of the low IP area”. In Rizzi, L. (ed.), The Structure of CP and IP, 16-51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Belletti, Adriana. 2009. Structures and Strategies. London: Routledge.

Belletti, Adriana. 2012. “Revisiting the CP of Clefts”. In Grewendorf, G. & Zimmermann, T.E. (eds.), Discourse and Grammar. From Sentence Types to Lexical Categories, 91-114. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Belletti, Adriana. 2013. “On Fin: Italian che, Japanese no and the selective properties of the copula in clefts”. In Miyamoto, Y., Takahashi, D., Maki, H., Ochi, M., Sugisaki K. & Uchibori, A. (eds.), Deep Insights, Broad Perspectives. Essays in Honor of Mamoru Saito, 41-55. Tokyo: Kaitakusha Co., Ltd.

Bembo, Pietro. 1525. “Prose della volgar lingua”. Reprinted in Dionisotti C. (ed.). 1989. Pietro Bembo. Prose della volgar lingua, Gli Asolani, Rime. I classici italiani. Milan: TEA Tascabili Editori Associati.

Benincà, Paola. 1984. “Un’ipotesi sulla sintassi delle lingue romanze medievali”. Quaderni Patavini di Linguistica 4: 3-19.

Benincà, Paola. 1995. “Complement Clitics in Medieval Romance: The Tobler-Mussafia Law.” In Ian Roberts and Adrian Battye (eds.), Clause Structure and Language Change, 325–44. Oxford: OUP.

Benincà, Paola. 2004. “The Left Periphery of Medieval Romance.” Studi Linguistici E Filologici Online 2 (2): 243–97.

Benincà, Paola. 2006. “A Detailed Map of the Left Periphery of Medieval Romance”. In Zanuttini R.; Campos H.; Herburger H.; Portner P. (eds.), Crosslinguistic Research in Syntax and Semantics. Negation, Tense and Clausal Architecture, 53-86. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Beninà, Paola & Cinque, Guglielmo. 2010. “La frase relativa”. In Renzi, L. & Salvi, G. (eds.), Grammatica dell’Italiano Antico, 469-507. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Benincà, Paola & Poletto, Cecilia. 2004. “Topic, Focus and V2: Defining the CP sublayers”. In Rizzi, L. (ed.), The structure of CP and IP, 52-75. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Benincà, Paola & Poletto Cecilia. 2010. “L’ordine delle parole e la struttura della frase”. In Renzi L. & Salvi G. (eds.), Grammatica dell’italiano antico, 27-75. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Bentley, Delia. 2006. Split-intransitivity in Italian. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Bianchi, Valentina. 2003. “On finiteness as logophoric anchoring”. In , Guéron J. & Tasmovski L. (eds.), Temps et Point de Vue/Tense and Point of View, 213-246. Paris, Université Paris X Nanterre.

Biberauer, Theresa & Richards, Marc. 2006. “True optionality. When the grammar doesn’t mind”. In Boeckx, C. (ed.), Minimalist Essays, 35-67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bolanho e Isla, Almacio. 1971. Manual de Historia de la Lengua Espanhola. Mexico: Editorial Porrua.

Bolinger, Dwight. 1972. That’s that, Vol. 155. The Hague and Paris: Mouton [Studia Memoria Nicolai van Wijk Dedicata].

Boskovič, Zeliko & Lasnik, Howard. 2003. “On the distribution of null complementizers”. Linguistic Inquiry 34: 527-546.

Bourciez, Édouard. 1967. Éléments de linguistique romane. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.

Camacho, José A. 2013. Null subjects. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cardinaletti, Anna. 2010. “I pronomi personali e riflessivi”. In Salvi, G. & Renzi, L. (eds.), Grammatica dell’italiano antico, 414-450. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Chomsky, Noam. 1993. “A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory”. In Hale, K. & Keiser, S. J. (eds.), The view from Building 20: Essays in Linguistics in Honor of Sylvain Bromberger, 1-52. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2000. “Minimalist Inquiries: The Framework”. In Martin, R. E. A. (ed.), Step by Step. Essay on Minimalist Syntax in Honor of Howard Lasnik, 89-155. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2001. “Derivation by Phase”. In Kenstowicz, M. (ed.), Ken Hale: A Life in Language, 1-52. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cocchi, Gloria & Poletto, Cecilia. 2002. “Complementizer deletion in Florentine: the interaction between merge and move”. In Beyssade, C., Bok-Bennema, R., Drijkoningen, F. & Monachesi, P. (eds.), Romance languages and Linguistic Theory, 55-56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Cocchi, Gloria & Poletto, Cecilia. 2005. “Complementizer deletion and complementizer doubling”. In Proceedings of the XXXII Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, vol. 1, 49-62. Firenze: Edizioni dell’Orso.

Cole, Melvin. 2009. “Null subjects: A reanalysis of the data”. Linguistics 47: 559–587.

Comrie, Bernard & Kuteva, Tania. 2005. “Relativization on Subjects”. In Dryer, M. & Haspelmath, M. (eds.), The Worlds Atlas of Language Structures Online, chapter 122. Accesible online at:

D’Alessandro, Roberta. & Ledgeway, Adam. 2010. “The Abruzzese T‐v system: feature spreading and the double auxiliary construction”. In D’Alessandro, R., Ledgeway, A. & Roberts, I. (eds.), Syntactic variation. The dialects of Italy, 201-209. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Damonte, Federico. 2011. “Matching moods: Mood concord between CP and IP in Salentino and Southern Calabrian subjunctive complements”. In Benincà, P. & Munaro, N. (eds.), Mapping the Left Periphery, 228-256. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Demonte, Violeta & Fernández-Soriano, Olga. 2009. “Force and finiteness in the Spanish complementizer system”. Probus 21: 23–49.

Dulce de Faria, Paiva. 1988. Historia da lingua portuguesa. Seculo XV, e meados do século XVI. Sao Paulo: Editora àtica.

Elvira, Javier. 2005. “Los caracteres de la lengua: gramática de los paradigmas y de la construcción sintáctica del discurso”. In Cano, R. (ed.), Historia de la lengua española, 449-472. Barcelona: Ariel.

Folli, Raffaella & Harley, Heidi . 2005. “Flavours of v: Consuming results in Italian and English”. In Kempchinsky, P. & Slabakova R. (eds.), Aspectual enquiries, 95–120. Dordrecht: Springer.

Formentin, Vittorio. 1996. “Flessione bicasuale del pronome relativo in antichi testi italiani centro-meridionali”. Archivio glottologico italiano 81: 133–76.

Foulet, Lucien. 1928. Petite syntaxe de l’ancien français. Paris: Champion. Reprinted 1982.

Franco, Irene. 2009. Verbs, Subjects and Stylistic Fronting. A comparative analysis of the interaction of CP properties with verb movement and subject positions in Icelandic and Old Italian. PhD Dissertation, University of Siena.

Franco, Irene. 2014. “Effects of parametric change and active-inactive alignment: the case of C-omission”. In C. Contemori and L. Dal Pozzo (eds.), Inquiries into Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Papers offered to Adriana Belletti, Siena, CISCL Press.

Franco, Irene. 2015. “Cartographic structures in diachrony. The case of C-omission”. In Shlonsky, U. (ed.), Beyond functional sequence. The cartography of syntactic structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Franco, Irene. Under review. “The Root/Non-Root Asymmetry of Stylistic Fronting in Old Italian: a Phase-based Analysis”.

Franco, Irene & Migliori, Laura. 2014. “Voice* in Old Italian”. Paper presented at IGG40 , Trento, Italy, 13th-15th February 2014.

Gallego, Ángel. 2010. Phase Theory. Linguistik Aktuell 152. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gianollo, Chiara. 2010. “I verbi deponenti latini e l’unità della flessione in –r”. Incontri triestini di filologia classica 8 (2008-2009): 23-49.

Giron Alconchel & José Luis. 2005. “Cambios gramaticales en los siglos de oro”. In Cano, R. (ed.), Historia de la lengua española, 859-893. Barcelona: Ariel.

Grafström, Åke. 1968. Étude sur la graphie des plus anciennes chartes languedociennes avec un essai d’interpretation phonétique. Uppsala: Almqvist.

Grohmann, Kleanthes K. 2003. Prolific Domains: On the Anti-Locality of Movement Dependencies (Linguistik Aktuell 66). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Haegeman, Liliane. 2006. “Argument fronting in English, Romance CLLD and the Left Periphery”. In Zanuttini, R., Campos, H., Herburger, H. & Portner, P. (eds.), Negation, Tense and Clausal Architecture: Cross‐linguistic Investigations, 25–52. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Hamini Boainain, Hauy. 1989. Historia da lingua portuguesa. Seculos XII, XIII and XIV. São Paulo: Editora àtica.

Hanssen, Federico. 1945. Gramática Histórica de la Lengua Castellana. Buenos Aires: Libreria y editorial El Ateneo.

Harley, Heidi. & Ritter, Elizabeth. 2002. “A feature-geometric analysis of person and number”. Language 78: 482–526.

Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hooper, Joan & Thompson, Sandra 1973. “On the applicability of root transformations”. Linguistic Inquiry 4: 465 – 497.

Jaeger, Florian. 2005. “Optional that indicates production difficulty: Evidence from disfluencies”. In Proceedings of DiSS’05, Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech Workshop. 10–12 September 2005, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Jaeger, Florian. 2010. “Redundancy and Reduction: Speakers Manage Syntactic Information Density”. Cognitive Psychology 61(1): 23-62.

Jaeger, Florian & Walter, Mary A. 2005. “Constraints on English that-drop: A strong lexical OCP effect”. In Radney L. E., Midtlyng, P.J., Sprague, C.L. & Stensrud, K.G., (eds.), Proceedings of the Main Session of the 41st Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 505-519. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Jensen, Frede. 1986. The syntax of Medieval Occitan. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.

Jensen, Frede. 1990. Old French and Comparative Gallo-Romance Syntax. Tübingen: Max Nieveyer.

Kastelein, Emma. 2012. La salita del clitico in Italiano. Un’analisi diacronica. MA thesis, University of Leiden.

Kayne, Richard. 2010. Comparisons and Contrasts. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kratzer, Angelika. 1996. “Severing the external argument from its verb”. In Rooryck, J. & Zaring L. (eds.), Phrase structure and the lexicon, 109 – 137. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

La Fauci, Nunzio. 1988. Oggetti e soggetti nella formazione della morfosintassi romanza. Pisa: Giardini.

Lafont, Robert. 1967. La phrase occitane. Montpellier: Presses Universitaires de France.

Lasnik, Howard. 1999. “On feature strength: Three minimalist approaches to overt movement”. Linguistic Inquiry 30:197-217.

Ledgeway, Adam. 2003. “Il sistema completivo dei dialetti meridionali: la doppia serie di complementatori”. Rivista Italiana di dialettologia 25: 89‐145.

Ledgeway, Adam. 2005. “Moving through the left periphery: the dual complementizer system in the dialects of southern Italy”. Transactions of the philological society 103: 336‐396.

Ledgeway, Adam. 2008. “Satisfying V2: Sì Clauses in Old Neapolitan”. Journal of Linguistics 44: 437–40.

Ledgeway, Adam. 2009. Grammatica diacronica del napoletano (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie Band 350). Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Ledgeway, Adam. 2012. From Latin to Romance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levy, Roger & Jaeger, Florian. 2007. “Speakers optimize information density through syntactic reduction”. In Schlökopf B., Platt, J. & Hoffman, T. (eds.), Advances in neural information processing systems (NIPS) 19, 849-856. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lleal, Coloma. 2000. Historia de la Lengua Española. Barcelona: Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona.

Llinàs-Grau, Mirela & Fernandez-Sanchez, Javier. 2011. “Reflexiones en torno a la supresión del complementante en inglés, español y catalán”. Revista Española de Lingüística 43.

McKoon, Gail & Ratcliff, Roger. 2003. “Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction”. Psychological Review 110: 490-525.

Menendez Pidal, Ramon. 1973. Manual de Gramática Histórica Española. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.

Meszler, Lenka & Samu, Borbala. 2010. “Le strutture subordinate”. In Renzi, L. & Salvi, G. (eds.), Grammatica dell’Italiano Antico, 563‐590, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Morel Pinto, Rolando. 1988. Historia da lingua portuguesa. Século XVIII. Saõ Paulo: Editora àtica.

Natchanan, Yaowapat & Amara, Prasithrathrsint. 2008. “A typology of relative clauses in mainland Southeast Asian languages”. The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal 38:1-23.

Paoli, Sandra. 2003. Comp and the Left Periphery: comparative evidence from Romance. PhD Dissertation.

Parry, Mair. 2005. “La frase relativa (con antecedente) negli antichi volgari dell’Italia nordoccidentale”. LabRomAn 1/I‐2005: 9‐32.

Poletto, Cecilia. 1995. “Complementizer Deletion and Verb Movement in Italian”. Working Papers in Linguistics 5 (2). Venice: University of Venice.

Poletto, Cecilia. 2005. “Sì and e as CP expletives in Old Italian”. In Batllori, M., Hernanz, M-L., Picallo, C. & Roca, F. (eds.). Grammaticalization and Parametric Variation, 206-235. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Poletto, Cecilia. 2006. “Parallel Phases: a study on the high and low left periphery of Old Italian”. In Frascarelli, M. (ed.). Phases of Interpretation, 261-295. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Poletto, Cecilia. 2010. “Quantifier, Focus and Topic Movement: A View on Old Italian Object Preposing”. Linguistische Berichte 224:441-465.

Poletto, Cecilia. 2014. Word order in Old Italian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramchand, Gillian C. 2008. Verb meaning and the Lexicon. A first-phase syntax. Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Marc. 2007. “On feature-inherintance: an argument from the Phase Impenetrability Condition”. Linguistic Inquiry 38: 563-72.

Richards, Marc. 2012. “On feature inheritance, defective phases and the movement-morphology connection”. In Gallego Á. (ed.), Phases. Developing the framework, 195-232. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Rizzi, Luigi. 1997. “The fine structure of the left periphery”. In Haegeman, L. (ed.), Elements of grammar: a handbook of generative syntax, 281-335. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Rizzi, Luigi & Shlonsky, Ur. 2007. “Strategies of subject extraction”. In Gärtner, H-M. & Sauerland, U. (eds.), Interfaces + Recursion = Language? Chomsky’s Minimalism and the View from Syntax-Semantics, 115–160. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Roberts, Ian. 1993. Verbs and diachronic syntax. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Roberts, Ian. 2007. Diachronic syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, Ian. 2012. “Phases, head movement and second-position effects”. In Gallego Á. (ed.). Phases. Developing the framework, 385-440. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Saab, Andrés L. 2011. “On verbal duplication in River Plate Spanish: Anti-adjacency and head-copy deletion”. In Berns, J., Jacobs, H., Scheer, T. (eds.), Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2009. Selected Papers from ‘Going Romance’, Nice 2009, 305-322. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sant’Anna Martins, Nilce. 1988. Historia da lingua portuguesa. Século XIX. Saõ Paulo: Editora àtica

Schneider, Stefan. 1999. Il congiuntivo tra modalità e subordinazione. Uno studio sull'italiano parlato. Roma: Carocci.

Schneider, Stefan. 2007. Reduced parenthetical clauses as mitigators. A corpus study of spoken French, Italian and Spanish. Amsterdam - Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Scorretti, Mauro. 1991. Complementizers in Italian and Romance. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, PhD Dissertation.

Segre, Cesare. 1952 (1974). “La sintassi del periodo nei primi prosatori italiani”. Reprinted in Lingua, stile e società: Studi sulla storia della prosa italiana, 79-270. Milan: Feltrinelli.

Sigurðsson, Halldór Á. 2004. “The syntax of Person, Tense and Speech features”. Rivista di Linguistica 16: 219-251, special issue (Bianchi Valentina & Safir Ken eds.).

Sigurðsson, Halldór. Á. 2011. “Conditions on argument drop”, Linguistic Inquiry 42.

Sitaridou, Ioanna. 2005. “A corpus-based study of null subjects in Old French and Old Occitan”. In Putsch, C.D., Kabatek, J. & Raible, W. (eds.), Corpora and Diachronic Linguistics, 359-374. Tübingen: Narr.

Spina, Segismundo. 1987. Historia da lingua portuguesa. Segunda metade do século XVI e século XVII. Saõ Paulo: Editora àtica.

Staum, Laura. 2005. “When Stylistic and Social Effects Fail to Converge: a variation study of complementizer choice”. Ms., Stanford University.

Taraldsen, Knut T. 2001. “Subject Extraction, the distribution of Expletives and Stylistic Inversion”. In Hulk, A. & Pollock, J-Y. (eds.), Subject Inversion in Romance and the Theory of Universal Grammar, 163-182. New York: Oxford University Press.

Vance, Barbara. 1997. Syntactic change in Medieval French. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Vance, Barbara; Donaldson, Brian & Steiner, Devan. 2010. “V2 loss in Old French and Old Occitan. The role of fronted clauses”. In Colina, S., Olarrea A. & Carvalho A. M. (eds.), Romance Linguistics 2009. Selected papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Tucson, Arizona, March 2009, 301-320. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Vanelli, Laura. 1987. “I pronomi soggetto nei dialetti italiani settentrionali dal medio evo ad oggi”. Medioevo Romanzo 13: 173-211.

Vanelli, Laura; Renzi, Lorenzo & Benincà, Paola. 1985. “Typologie des pronoms sujets dans les langues romanes”. In Actes du XVIIe Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes, 1983, 3:163-176. Aix: Université de Provençe.

Vincent, Nigel. 2006. “Il problema del doppio complementatore nei primi volgari d’Italia”. In Andreose, A., Penello, N. (eds.), LabRomAn: Giornata di lavoro sulle varietà romanze antiche, 27-42. Padua: University of Padua.

Wanner, Dieter. 1981. “Surface Complementizer Deletion. Italian che = ø”. Journal of Italian Linguistics 6(1):45-83.

Primary sources

Alighieri, Dante. 1292-93. Vita Nuova. Ed. by Michele Barbi. Firenze: Bemporad, 1932.

Anonimous. 1235. Trattato della Dilezione di Albertano da Brescia volgarizzato. Ed. by Pär Larson & Giovanna Frosini. Firenze: Accademia della Crusca, 2012. [Trattato Morale di Albertano da Brescia].

Anonimous. XIII cent. Il Tesoro di Brunetto Latini volgarizzato. Ed. by Guido Battelli. Firenze: Successori Le Monnier, 1917. [Tesoro volg.].

Anonimous XIII cent. Il Tesoro di Brunetto Latini volgarizzato da Bono Giamboni. Ed. by Luigi Gaiter. Bologna: Gaetano Romagnoli, 4 voll., 1878-1883. [Tesoro volg., ed. Gaiter]

Anonimous. 1315. Il Novellino. Ed. by Guido Favati, Genova, Bozzi, 1970. [Novellino]

Bisticci, da, Vespasiano. 1480‐1493. Le vite. Ed. by Aulo Greco, Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento, Firenze 1970 [VBV]. Accesible online at:

Latini, Brunetto. 1260-61. La Rettorica. Ed. By Francesco Maggini, Firenze: Le Monnier, 1968. [Rettorica].

Macinghi Strozzi, Alessandra. 1447‐1449. Lettere di una gentildonna fiorentina del secolo XV ai figliuoli esuli. Ed. by Guasti C., Firenze, Sansoni, 1877. [AMS].

Machiavelli, Niccolò. 1513. Il Principe. Ed. by G. Inglese, Torino, Einaudi, 1995 [P]

Villani, Matteo. 1348-63. Cronica. Ed. By Giuseppe Porta. Parma: Fondazione Pietro Bembo / Ugo Guanda Editore, 1995. [Cronica]

Online database

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2015 Irene Franco