Indialogs <p>The journal <em>Indialogs, Spanish Journal of India Studies</em> is the first electronic journal in Spain that focuses exclusively on the Indian Subcontinent. The journal covers a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from literature, culture and film to politics, history and environmental studies. Indialogs is an academic journal but one of its goals is to reach out to the general public and encourage a deeper understanding of the richness and diversity of India, its people and its extraordinary history. Our objectives are to promote research on India from a multidisciplinary perspective and strengthen cultural and scientific ties with the subcontinent. The journal is a joint initiative of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department de Filologia Anglesa i Germanística</a> of the UAB and the <a href="">Spanish Association of India Studies</a>.</p> en-US <span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright.</li><li>The texts published in this journal are – unless indicated otherwise – covered by the Creative Commons <a title="Creative Commons" href="" target="_blank">Attribution 4.0</a> international licence. You may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, provided you attribute it (authorship, journal name, publisher) in the manner specified by the author(s) or licensor(s). The full text of the licence can be consulted here: <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li><li>In the event of the UAB wishing to license the entire content of this academic journal to an academic publisher or to a service provider of access to academic content, whether free or through consideration, I hereby authorise the UAB to license the article to be published in the terms it deems most suitable to further its dissemination.</li></ol> (Felicity Hand) (Indialogs) Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 GANDHI: A Thousand Contradictions - Roundtable and Art Workshop. THE EXPERIENCE <p>How does a hands-on creative arts workshop and roundtable session unfold amongst a group of erudite academics or aspiring academics? This is subtly unveiled in what turned out to be an unforgettable journey, into the person of Mohandas Gandhi and all his eccentricities.</p> Soniya Amritlal Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Soniya Amritlal Patel Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Review of Indian Travel Narratives A review of Somdatta Mandal, ed. <em>Indian Travel Narratives: New Perspectives</em>. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2021. Himadri Lahiri Copyright (c) 2021 Himadri Lahiri Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Review of Spiritual and Corporeal Selves in India: Approaches in a Global World Review of <em>Spiritual and Corporeal Selves in India: Approaches in a Global World</em> Antonia Navarro Tejero Copyright (c) 2021 Antonia Navarro Tejero Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 “Is Gandhi the hero?”: A Reappraisal of Gandhi’s Views about Women in Deepa Mehta’s Water <p>Set in 1938 against the backdrop of India’s anti-colonial movement led by Gandhi, the film <em>Water</em> (2005) by Deepa Mehta crudely exposes one of the most demeaning aspects of the patriarchal ideology of Hinduism: the custom of condemning widows to a life of self-denial and deprivation at the <em>ashrams. </em>Mehta has remarked that figures like Gandhi have inspired people throughout the ages. Nonetheless, in this essay I argue that under an apparent admiration for the figure of Gandhi in the context of the emancipation of India in general and widows in particular, <em>Water</em> questions whether Gandhi’s doctrines about the liberation of women were effective or whether, on the contrary, they contributed to restricting women to the private realm by turning them into personifications of the Indian nation. In this context of submission and oppression of women in India, Gandhi did try to improve their conditions though he was convinced that gender is destiny and that women’s chastity is connected to India’s national honour. I argue that Mehta’s film undermines<em> </em>Gandhi’s idealism by presenting images of him and dialogues in which he is the topic. As a methodological approach, I propose a dialogic (Bahktin 1981) reading of the filmic text which analyses how a polyphony of voices praise and disparage the figure of Gandhi in <em>Water. </em>I will also analyse the film in the light of Bakhtin’s views on the hero (1983)<em> </em>and his notion of the “chronotope”(Bahktin 1981).</p><p><br /><em></em></p> Pilar Somacarrera-Íñigo Copyright (c) 2021 Pilar Somacarrera Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Influence of Gandhi's Economic Thoughts on the Indian Economy <p>Gandhi wanted the Indian economy to center around autonomous village republics rather than work on the back of large-scale industries or consumption expenditure. Gandhi’s principles for formulating his economic thoughts were based on a call to ‘return to the nature’. He would have liked people to reduce their wants in lives and to concentrate instead on development of their faculties for achievement of spiritual goals. This would not require people in villages to madly rush to cities in search of work. All people would live more fulfilling and meaningful lives. He would justify use of machines and industrial production systems in the economy only when the outcomes serviced the fundamental and most basic needs of people. This paper describes Gandhi’s economic principles in order to analyze how they contrast with the free operation of the market today which has created multiple new inequalities in society. The liberalized rapid economic growth model in India has made development of the rural sector secondary to rapid growths in trade and manufactures of consumer commodities in the urban centers. This has gone the opposite way from the paths Gandhi outlined for his country, and it has exacerbated the same societal inequalities he wanted to see reduced.</p> Taz Mazinder Barua Copyright (c) 2021 Taz Mazinder Barua Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Revisiting Gandhi’s Idea of Trusteeship in the Context of Globalization and Inequality <p>Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of trusteeship is a pragmatic model of development that aims to attain economic equality in society. This idea is an alternative to communism and capitalism and is based on nonviolence and inclusivity. Trusteeship seeks to resolve the conflict between labour and capital by emphasizing on equitable distribution of work and wages, giving equal importance to manual and mental labour, promoting people to labour for their own bread, creating a society in which all the people are entitled only to as much wealth as required to satisfy their needs and have time for leisure. Trusteeship replaces competition with cooperation by promoting wealthy people to voluntarily abdicate their wealth for the underprivileged. It aims to transform self-interested individuals to work for group-interest. This idea is relevant for the present times when inequality is widening the gap between rich and poor, and weakening the prospects of inclusive development. Trusteeship is a workable solution that can ensure sustainable progress in contemporary times. </p> Stefy V Joseph, Mucheli Rishvanth Reddy Copyright (c) 2021 Stefy V Joseph, Mucheli Rishvanth Reddy Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Gandhi: the Beast Within. An Anthropological Perspective of the Comic Book View of the Symbolic Figure of Gandhi <p>The present article analyses the symbolic images of Gandhi from the Comic-book titled <em>Gandhi: the Beast Within</em>. The traditional north American and Indian superheroes comics universe offers stereotypes of characters that respond to an identity or ideology generating a cultural identification space from the actors who hold the power. The characters are based on the projection of an oversized image which respond to human traits which are mythologized. Hulk, the Marvel Comics Publishers character, stands out and it is used as a referee for the publication of the comic where Gandhi is parodied and caricaturized. The uses of Hulk, as a referee, and the stereotypes and traits long over the narrative are elements that we have taken to put in context in order to analyse the symbolism of the figure of Gandhi beyond the historical and social identification with non-violence.</p> Víctor Luis Vélez García Copyright (c) 2021 Víctor Luis Vélez García Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Silence of the Subaltern in the Partition of India: Bengali Gendered Trauma Narratives in Shobha Rao’s “The Lost Ribbon” and Ramapada Chaudhuri’s “Embrace” <p>The Partition of India was one of the crucial moments marking the transition between the colonial and postcolonial era. Partition has become ever since a long-term process that continues to elicit political, cultural and emotional contexts in South Asia. The creation of Pakistan as a homeland for South Asian Muslims involved the division of Bengal and Punjab along religious lines and while the celebratory narratives of decolonization and nationhood marked the official historiographies of 1947, trauma, loss and displacement were not part of the narrative. </p><p class="AEDEANAbstractBody">The following article focuses on the experience of abducted women in Bengal in the communal riots during the Partition of India. This analysis stems from a brief overview of the silence that has permeated the partition of Bengal within historiography and the scarce literary response that has articulated those silences. It moves on to the analysis of the violence that abducted women suffered in this context. Finally, it deals with two short stories, “The Lost Ribbon” and “Embrace,” which situate gender trauma narratives by showing two radically different responses to the event of becoming a mother of an abductor’s child on the other side of the border and the effect that displacement and forced repatriation has upon female bodies.</p> Dolors Ortega Arévalo Copyright (c) 2021 Dolors Ortega Arévalo Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Desynchronization in the Necrocene Age: The Case of the Maldives and Future Speculations <p>Through the theoretical framework of the Necrocene, the age of death and extinction due to capitalist accumulation, this article tries to analyze and flesh out the current sociopolitical and ecological crisis of the Maldives archipelago as a symptom of what is to come on a planetary scale. It will analyze how knots of life play part in the ecology of the Maldives as a case study. Through the close reading and scrutiny of contemporary literature in the fields of Environmental Humanities, Extinction Studies and Political Ecology, this essay aims to engage with the pressing matter of the Anthropocene, its materialities and its imaginaries. Finally, it ambitiously provides further thought on how to approach the Necrocene as a global multifocal crisis, aiming to build up on the idea of Climate X. </p> Oriol Batalla Copyright (c) 2021 Oriol Batalla Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Voicing the Subaltern in African-American and Dalit Women's Autobiographies <p>This paper aims to analyse two major autobiographies of Dalit women’s literature and African American women’s writing – <em>Karukku</em> (1992) by Bama Faustina and <em>Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl</em> (1861) by Harriet A. Jacobs – to bring forth the similarities between these two groups of subaltern women. Through the means of autobiography, both writers transmit their own experiences and denounce the gender, race and caste oppression endured. The subaltern theory coined by Antonio Gramsci and developed by Gayatri Spivak will be used to analyse these texts and the way they establish a link between two different worlds as well as how they share the common objective of making their narrators’ exclusion visible in their patriarchal worlds.</p> Isabel Beltrán Copyright (c) 2021 Isabel Beltrán Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Local Roots, Imperial Meridians, Global Connections: the History of Colonial India from a Global Perspective in the Works of C. A. Bayly C. A. Bayly is the single most influential scholar in the field of Indian history in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. His work is accessible to Spanish-speaking readers thanks to <em>El nacimiento del mundo moderno, 1780‒1914: Conexiones y comparaciones globales </em>(2010), the Spanish translation of <em>The Birth of the Modern World, 1780‒1914: Global Connections and Comparisons</em> (2004). This book, his only contribution that has been translated into Spanish, is the work for which he is best known in Latin America and Spain. The volume, however, represents a single chapter in a long career of contributions to the historiography of colonial India, the British Empire, and global history. The aim of this article is to examine C. A. Bayly’s intellectual production as a whole for a non-specialist Spanish-speaking audience, highlighting the links he established between colonial India, the British Empire, and the rest of the world. Teresa Segura-Garcia Copyright (c) 2021 Teresa Segura-Garcia Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ‘Sons of Bengal’ and the Absent Daughters: Gender, Performativity and Nationalism in Bengali Juvenile Literature <p>This article looks at the asymmetrical bifurcation of gender roles and performativity that is reflected palpably within Bengali juvenile literature of the twentieth century. These writings strove to venerate a cult of hypermasculinity through the portrayal of brave, assertive Bengali heroes who engaged in various escapades in distant lands or in the solving of mysteries and crimes, either alone or accompanied by male confidantes who remain completely devoted to them. This dominant cultural trope was consciously employed as a challenge to the imperial, racist stereotypes of the effeminate Bengali man who was imagined to be inferior to the virile, robust and intellectually superior Englishman. However, the role of women within such diegetic portrayals is liminal or conspicuously absent; female readers are conditioned to “wallow in the reflected glory of their heroes” (Mukherjee para. 13). This paper also looks into the politics of sexuality and nationalism involved within the celebration of male homosocial bonding over heteronormative relationships, thereby leading to the almost complete effacement of female agency.</p> Stella Chitralekha Biswas Copyright (c) 2021 Stella Chitralekha Biswas Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial Felicity Hand Copyright (c) 2021 Felicity Hand Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200