Revisiting Top-Down Primary Stress

Kathryn Pruitt

Abstract

Metrical theory recognizes differences between primary and non-primary stresses, sometimes within the same language. In serial theories, this has often led to a parametric approach in derivation: some languages are ‘top-down’, with the primary stress assigned first, while other languages are ‘bottom-up’, where foot construction precedes primary stress placement. This paper examines two languages (Cahuilla and Yine) that have be treated as ‘top-down’ in rulebased metrical theory, and it shows that neither requires a top-down analysis in Harmonic Serialism, a derivational version of Optimality Theory. On the basis of these case studies it is argued that the common, intuitive notion of what makes a language ‘top-down’—a primary stress’s independence from non-primary stresses—is oversimplified. The case studies reveal the importance of theoretical framework and typological predictions in establishing the order of primary and non-primary stress assignment. The argument culminates in a concise statement of Harmonic Serialism-specific criteria for establishing that a top-down derivation is required.

Keywords

primary stress; Harmonic Serialism; metrical theory; top-down; bottom-up

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alber, Birgit. 2005. Clash, lapse, and directionality. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 23: 485-542.

Bailey, Todd Mark. 1995. Non-metrical constraints on stress. Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Birk, D. B. W. 1976. The MalakMalak language, Daly River (Western Arnhem Land). Pacific Linguistics B-45. The Australian National University.

Chen, Matthew Y. 1999. Directionality constraints on derivation? In Ben Hermans & Marc van Oostendorp (eds.). The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimlity Theory, 105-127. John Benjamins: Philadephia.

Cohn, Abigail C. 1989. Stress in Indonesian and bracketing paradoxes. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 7(2): 167-216.

Cohn, Abigail C. 1993. The initial dactyl effect in Indonesian. Linguistic Inquiry 24(2): 372-381.

Cohn, Abigail C. & John J. McCarthy. 1994. Alignment and parallelism in Indonesian phonology. Published 1998 in Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory. Vol. 12, 53-137.

Crowhurst, Megan. 1991. Minimality and Foot Structure in Metrical Phonology and Prosodic Morphology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Crowhurst, Megan & Mark Hewitt. 1995a. Directional footing, degeneracy, and alignment. Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 25, 47-61.

Crowhurst, Megan & Mark Hewitt. 1995b. Prosodic overlay and headless feet in Yidiɲ. Phonology 12: 39-84.

Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2019. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-second edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com

Elenbaas, Nine & René Kager. 1999. Ternary rhythm and the lapse constraint. Phonology 16: 273-329.

Elfner, Emily. 2016. Stress-epenthesis interactions in Harmonic Serialism. In John J. McCarthy & Joe Pater (eds.). Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism. London: Equinox.

Furby, Christine. 1974. Garawa phonology. Number 37 in Pacific Linguistics, Series A. Australian National University, Canberra.

Goedemans, Rob & Harry van der Hulst. 2014. The separation of accent and rhythm: evidence from StressTyp. In Harry van der Hulst (ed.). Word Stress: Theoretical and Typological Issues, 119-145. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Goldsmith, John A. 1990. Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

Gordon, Matthew. 2002. A factorial typology of quantity-insensitive stress. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 20(3): 491-552.

Hansen, Kenneth C. & L. E. Hansen. 1969. Pintupi phonology. Oceanic Linguistics 8: 153-170.

Harris, James. 1983. Syllable structure and stress in Spanish. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 8. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Harris, James. 1989. A podiatric note on secondary stress in Spanish. Ms. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Hayes, Bruce. 1981. A metrical theory of stress rules. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Hayes, Bruce. 1995. Metrical stress theory: principles and case studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hulst, Harry van der. 1984. Syllable structure and stress in Dutch. Dordrecht: Foris.

Hulst, Harry van der. 1997. Primary accent is non-metrical. Revista di Linguistica 9(1): 99-127.

Hulst, Harry van der. 2009. Brackets and grid marks, or theories of primary accent and rhythm. In Eric Raimy & Charles E. Cairns (eds.). Contemporary Views on Architecture and Representations in Phonological Theory, 225-245. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hulst, Harry van der. 2012. Deconstructing stress. Lingua 122: 1494-1521.

Hurch, Bernhard. 1996. Accentuations. In Bernhard Hurch & Richard A. Rhodes (eds.). Natural Phonology: The State of the Art, 73-96. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hyde, Brett. 2001. Metrical and Prosodic Structure in Optimality Theory. Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University. ROA-476.

Hyde, Brett. 2002. A restrictive theory of metrical stress. Phonology 19: 313-359.

Hyde, Brett. 2008. Bidirectional stress systems. In Charles B. Chang & Hannah J. Haynie (eds.). Proceedings of the 26th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 270-278. Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, MA.

Hyde, Brett. 2012. The odd-parity input problem in metrical stress theory. Phonology 29(3): 383-431.

Hyde, Brett. 2014. Symmetries and asymmetries in secondary stress patterns. In Harry van der Hulst (ed.). Word Stress: Theoretical and Typological Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hyde, Brett. 2016. Layering and Directionality: Metrical Stress in Optimality Theory. London: Equinox.

Hyde, Brett & Bethany McCord. 2012. The inadequacy of a faithfulness-based approach to Spanish secondary stress. Ms. Washington University. ROA-1154.

Jesney, Karen. 2011. Positional faithfulness, non-locality, and the Harmonic Serialism solution. In Suzi Lima, Kevin Mullin, and Brian W. Smith (eds.). Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 39. GLSA, Amherst, MA. ROA-1018.

Kager, René. 1989. A metrical theory of stress and destressing in English and Dutch. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

Kager, René. 1995. Review of Hayes (1995). Phonology 12(3): 437-464.

Kager, René. 1999. Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kager, René. 2001. Rhythmic directionality by positional licensing. Paper presented at the Fifth HIL Phonology Conference, University of Potsdam. ROA-514.

Kager, René. 2005. Rhythmic licensing theory: an extended typology. The Phonology- Morphology Circle of Korea. Available at https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/8780

Key, Mary Ritchie. 1968. Comparative Tacanan Phonology. The Hague: Mouton.

Kimper, Wendell A. 2011. Locality and globality in phonological variation. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 29: 423-465.

Matteson, Esther. 1965. The Piro (Arawakan) language. University of California Publications in Linguistics 42. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

McCarthy, John J. 2000. Harmonic serialism and parallelism. In M. Hirotani (ed.). Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 30, 501-524. GLSA, Amherst, MA.

McCarthy, John J. 2003. OT constraints are categorical. Phonology 20: 75-138.

McCarthy, John J. 2008. The serial interaction of stress and syncope. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 26: 499-546.

McCarthy, John J. 2010. Studying Gen. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 13(2): 3-12.

McCarthy, John J. 2016. The theory and practice of Harmonic Serialism. In John J. McCarthy & Joe Pater (eds.). Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism. London: Equinox.

McCarthy, John J., Joe Pater & Kathryn Pruitt. 2016. Cross-level interactions in Harmonic Serialism. In John J. McCarthy & Joe Pater (eds.). Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism. London: Equinox.

McCarthy, John J. & Alan Prince. 1993. Generalized alignment. Yearbook of Morphology 12: 79-153. ROA-7.

McCarthy, John J. & Kathryn Pruitt. 2013. Sources of phonological structure. In Hans Broekhuis & Ralf Vogel (eds.). Linguistic Derivations and Filtering: Minimalism and Optimality Theory. London: Equinox.

McGarrity, Laura. 2003. Constraints on patterns of primary and secondary stress. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

Odden, David. 1979. Principles of stress assignment: a cross-linguistic view. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 9(1): 157-175.

Pater, Joe. 2000. Non-uniformity in English secondary stress: the role of ranked and lexically specific constraints. Phonology 17: 237-274.

Prince, Alan. 1983. Relating to the grid. Linguistic Inquiry 14(1): 19-100.

Prince, Alan. 1990. Quantitative consequences of rhythmic organization. In Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society 26, Vol. 2, pp. 355-398.

Prince, Alan & Paul Smolensky. 1993/2004. Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Pruitt, Kathryn. 2010. Serialism and locality in constraint-based metrical parsing. Phonology 27(3): 481-526.

Pruitt, Kathryn. 2012. Stress in Harmonic Serialism. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Pruitt, Kathryn. in prep. Parallelism within serialism: evidence from primary stress. Ms. Arizona State University.

Roca, Iggy M. 1986. Secondary stress and metrical rhythm. Phonology Yearbook 3: 330-341.

Seiler, Hansjakob. 1957. Die phonetischen Grundlagen der Vokalphoneme des Cahuilla. STUF - Language Typology and Universals 10(1-4): 204-223.

Seiler, Hansjakob. 1965. Accent and morphophonemics in Cahuilla and in Uto-Aztecan. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(1): 50-59.

Seiler, Hansjakob. 1967. Structure and reconstruction in some Uto-Aztecan languages. International Journal of American Linguistics 33(2): 135-147.

Seiler, Hansjakob. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.

Staubs, Robert. 2013. Pathologies of feature-driven stress. In Yelena Fainleib and Nicholas LaCara and Yangsook Park (eds.). Proceedings of the Northeast Linguistic Society 41. GLSA, Amherst, MA.

Voegelin, Charles. 1935. Tübatulabal Grammar, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 34. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2019 Kathryn Pruitt