Polarized Variation

Kie Zuraw

Abstract

In cases of exceptionality, there are usually many words that behave regularly, a smaller number that behave irregularly (the exceptions), and perhaps an even smaller number whose behavior varies. This paper presents several examples of exceptionality and variation that are polarized in this way: most items exhibit one behavior or the other consistently, with only a minority of items showing variation. The result is a U-shaped histogram of behavior rates. In some cases, this requires listing of surprisingly long units. There are, however, some cases of bell-shaped histograms, where most items show variation, and only a minority are consistent. Some simple simulations are presented to show how polarized variation can result when variation is between two categorical outcomes, and both types of variation can result when variation is along a phonetic continuum.

Keywords

exceptions; variation; corpus; diachronic change

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abeillé, Anne, Bonami, Olivier, Godard, Danièle & Tseng, Jesse. 2004. The syntax of French de-N’ phrases. In Müller, Stefan (ed.). HPSG 2004: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 6-26. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Abeillé, Anne, Bonami, Olivier, Godard, Danièle & Tseng, Jesse. 2005. Les syntagmes nominaux français de la forme de-N’. Travaux de linguistique 50: 79-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/tl.050.0079

Abeillé, Anne, Bonami, Olivier, Godard, Danièle & Tseng, Jesse. 2006. The syntax of French à and de: an HPSG analysis. In Saint-Dizier, Patrick (ed.). Syntax and semantics of prepositions, 147-162. Dordrecht: Springer.

Baker, Rachel, Smith, Rachel & Hawkins, Sarah. 2007. Phonetic differences between mis- and dis- in English prefixed and pseudo-prefixed words. Proceedings of ICPhS XVI, 553-556. Saarbruecken.

Baroni, Marco. 1998. The phonetic nature of the Northern Italian allophones [s] and [z] in words with variable realization: electroglottographic and acoustic evidence. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 96: 166-174.

Baroni, Marco. 2001. The representation of prefixed forms in the Italian lexicon: Evidence from the distribution of intervocalic [s] and [z] in northern Italian. In Booij, Geert & van Marle, Jaap (eds.). Yearbook of Morphology 1999, 121-152. Dordrecht: Springer.

Beddor, Patrice Speeter & Chutamanee Onsuwan. 2003. Perception of prenasalized stops. In Solé, M. J., Recasens, D. & Romero, J. (eds.). Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, vol. 1, 407-410. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Benor, Sarah & Roger Levy. 2006. The Chicken or the Egg? A Probabilistic Analysis of English Binomials. Language 82(2): 233-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2006.0077

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Boersma, Paul. 2007. Some listener-oriented accounts of h-aspiré in French. Lingua 117(12): 1989-2054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.11.004

Bybee, Joan. 2001. Phonology and language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clayards, Meghan, Hawkins, Sarah & Gaskell, Gareth. 2012. Listeners decode acoustic-phonetic cues to morphological structure. Presentation at AMLaP. Riva del Garda.

Coetzee, Andries W. & Kawahara, Shigeto. 2013. Frequency biases in phonological variation. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 31(1): 47-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11049-012-9179-z

Cohen, Marcel. 1963. Nouveaux regards sur la langue française. Paris: Editions Sociales.

Cornulier, Benoît de. 1981. H-aspirée et la syllabation: Expressions disjonctives. In Goyvaerts, Didier L. (ed.). Phonology in the 1980s, 183-230. Ghent: E. Story-Scientia.

Damourette, Jacques & Pichon, Édouard. 1930. Des mots à la pensée: essai de grammaire de la langue française. Vol. 1. Paris: Éditions d’Artrey.

Ellis, Lucy & William J. Hardcastle. 2002. Categorical and gradient properties of assimilation in alveolar to velar sequences: evidence from EPG and EMA data. Journal of Phonetics 30(3): 373-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0162

English, Leo. 1986. Tagalog-English dictionary. Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer; distributed by Philippine National Book Store.

Frei, Henri. 1929. La grammaire des fautes: introduction à la linguistique fonctionnelle, assimilation et différenciation, brièveté et invariabilité, expressivité. Paris: Librairie Paul Geuthner.

Gabriel, Christoph & Meisenburg, Trudel. 2009. Silent onsets? An optimality-theoretic approach to French h aspiré words. In Féry, Caroline, Kügler, Frank & van de Vijver, Ruben (eds.). Variation and gradience in phonetics and phonology, 163-184. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Grevisse, Maurice & Goosse, André. 2011. Le bon usage: grammaire française. 15th ed. Brussels: De Boeck-Duculot.

Guevara, Rowena Cristina L., Co, Melvin, Espina, Evan, Garcia, Ian Dexter, Tan, Emerson, Ensomo, Ryan & Sagum, Ramil. 2002. Development of a Filipino speech corpus. 3rd National ECE Conference. Philippines.

Hay, Jennifer. 2003. Causes and consequences of word structure. New York: Routledge.

Hilpert, Martin. 2008. The English comparative--language structure and language use. English language and linguistics 12(3): 395-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002694

Lin, Yuri, Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Aiden, Erez Lieberman, Orwant, Jon, Brockman, Will & Petrov, Slav. 2012. Syntactic Annotations for the Google Books Ngram Corpus. Proceedings of the ACL 2012 System Demonstrations, 169-174. (ACL ’12). Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics.

Malmberg, Bertil. 1943. Le système consonantique du français moderne: études de phonétique et de phonologie. (Études Romanes de Lund VII). Lund: Alf Lombard.

Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Shen, Yuan Kui, Aiden, Aviva Presser, Veres, Adrian, Gray, Matthew K., Pickett, Joseph P., Hoiberg, Dale, Clancy, Dan, Norvig, Peter, Orwant, John, Pinker, Steven, Nowak, Martin A. & Aiden, Erez Lieberman. 2011. Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science 331(6014): 176-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1199644

Mitterer, Holger & Mirjam Ernestus. 2006. Listeners recover /t/s that speakers reduce: Evidence from /t/-lenition in Dutch. Journal of Phonetics 34(1): 73-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2005.03.003

Mollin, Sandra. 2014. The (Ir)reversibility of English Binomials: Corpus, constraints, developments. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Niyogi, Partha. 2009. The Computational Nature of Language Learning and Evolution. The MIT Press.

Ogden, Richard, Hawkins, Sarah, House, Jill, Huckvale, Mark, Local, John, Carter, Paul, Dankovičová, Jana & Heid, Sebastian. 2000. ProSynth: an integrated prosodic approach to device-independent, natural-sounding speech synthesis. Computer Speech & Language 14(3): 177-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/csla.2000.0141

Phillips, Betty S. 2006. Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion. Palgrave Macmillan.

Pierrehumbert, Janet B., Stonedahl, Forrest & Daland, Robert. 2014. A model of grassroots changes in linguistic systems. ArXiv e-prints 1408. 1985.

Pitt, Mark A, Dilley, Laura, Johnson, Keith, Kiesling, Scott, Raymond, William, Hume, Elizabeth & Eric Fosler-Lussier. 2007. Buckeye corpus of conversational speech (2nd release). Columbus, OH: Department of Psychology, Ohio State University. www.buckeyecorpus.osu.edu.

Reali, Florencia & Griffiths, Thomas L. 2009. The evolution of frequency distributions: Relating regularization to inductive biases through iterated learning. Cognition 111(3): 317-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.02.012

Richtsmeier, Peter T. 2008. From Perceptual Learning to Speech Production: Generalizing Phonotactic Probabilities in Language Acquisition. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona.

Schachter, Paul & Otanes, Fe T. 1972. Tagalog Reference Grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Shih, Stephanie. 2014. Towards optimal rhythm. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.

Shih, Stephanie & Zuraw, Kie. Submitted. Phonological conditions on variable adjective-noun word order in Tagalog.

Shih, Stephanie & Zuraw, Kie. 2014. Phonological factors in Tagalog adjective-noun word order variation. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America (LSA). Minneapolis.

Smith, Brian. In preparation. Modeling English comparative change. Manuscript, UCLA.

Smith, Rachel, Baker, Rachel & Hawkins, Sarah. 2012. Phonetic detail that distinguishes prefixed from pseudo-prefixed words. Journal of Phonetics 40(5): 689-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2012.04.002

Stevens, Mary & Jonathan Harrington. 2014. The individual and the actuation of sound change. Loquens 1(1). e003. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/loquens.2014.003

Temple, Rosalind. 2014. Where and what is (t, d)? In Chiara Celata & Silvia Calamai (eds.), Advances in Sociophonetics, 97-136. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Tranel, Bernard. 1981. Concreteness in Generative Phonology: Evidence from French. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Tranel, Bernard & Del Gobbo, Francesca. 2002. Local conjunction in Italian and French phonology. Romance phonology and variation: selected papers from the 30th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages, Gainesville, Florida, February 2000, 191-218. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Tseng, Jesse. 2003. Phrasal affixes and French morphosyntax. In Gerhard Jäger (ed.), FGVienna: Proceedings of Formal Grammar 2003, 177-188. Technische Universität Wien.

Wang, William S.-Y. 1969. Competing Changes as a Cause of Residue. Language 45(1): 9-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/411748

Yanovich, Igor. 2014. Frequency effects and jumps between grammars in Old High German. Presentation. Presentation at the UCLA phonology seminar, Los Angeles.

Yu, Alan C. L. 2010. Perceptual Compensation Is Correlated with Individuals’ “Autistic” Traits: Implications for Models of Sound Change. PLOS ONE 5(8). e11950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011950

Zuraw, Kie. 2006. Using the Web as a phonological corpus: a case study from Tagalog. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Web As Corpus, 59-66. (WAC ’06). Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3115/1628297.1628306

Zuraw, Kie. 2009. Frequency influences on rule application within and across words. Proceedings of CLS (Chicago Linguistic Society) 43.

Zuraw, Kie. 2010. A model of lexical variation and the grammar with application to Tagalog nasal substitution. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 28(2): 417-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11049-010-9095-z

Zuraw, Kie. 2015. Allomorphs of French de and their ability to take wide scope in coordination. Linguistics Vanguard 1(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2014-1017

Zuraw, Kie & Hayes, Bruce. Submitted. Intersecting constraint families: an argument for Harmonic Grammar.

Zuraw, Kie & Peperkamp, Sharon. 2015. Aspiration and the gradient structure of English prefixed words. Proceedings of ICPhS XVIII. Glasgow.

Zuraw, Kie & Ryan, Kevin M. 2007. Frequency influences on phonological rule application within and across words. Presentation at Workshop on Variation, Gradience, and Frequency in Phonology held at LSA Institute, Stanford University.

Copyright (c) 2016 Kie Zuraw