Gradient Exceptionality in Maximum Entropy Grammar with Lexically Specific Constraints

Claire Moore-Cantwell, Joe Pater

Abstract

The number of exceptions to a phonological generalization appears to gradiently affect its productivity. Generalizations with relatively few exceptions are relatively productive, as measured in tendencies to regularization, as well as in nonce word productions and other psycholinguistic tasks. Gradient productivity has been previously modeled with probabilistic grammars, including Maximum Entropy Grammar, but they often fail to capture the fixed pronunciations of the existing words in a language, as opposed to nonce words. Lexically specific constraints allow existing words to be produced faithfully, while permitting variation in novel words that are not subject to those constraints. When each word has its own lexically specific version of a constraint, an inverse correlation between the number of exceptions and the degree of productivity is straightforwardly predicted.

Keywords

exceptions; variation; computational phonology; Maximum Entropy Grammar; indexed constraints

Full Text:

PDF

References

Allen, Blake & Becker, Michael. 2015. Learning alternations from surface forms with sublexical phonology. Unpublished manuscript, University of British Columbia and Stony Brook University. Available as lingbuzz/002503

Becker, Michael & Gouskova, Maria. To appear. Source-oriented generalizations as grammar inference in Russian vowel deletion. Linguistic Inquiry. Available as lingbuzz/001622.

Becker, Michael, Ketrez, Nihan & Nevins, Andrew. 2011. The Surfeit of the Stimulus: Analytic biases filter lexical statistics in Turkish laryngeal alternations. Language 87(1): 84-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2011.0016

Boersma, Paul. 1998. Functional phonology: formalizing the interactions between articulatory and perceptual drives. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.

Boersma, Paul & Pater, Joe. 2016. Convergence properties of a gradual learning algorithm for Harmonic Grammar. In John McCarthy & Joe Pater (eds.). Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism, 389-434. London: Equinox Press.

Ernestus, Mirjam & Baayen, Harald. 2003. Predicting the unpredictable: Interpreting neutralized segments in Dutch. Language 79: 5-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2003.0076

Fidelholtz, James. 1979. Stress in Polish - with some comparisons to English stress. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 9: 47-61. Available at http://wa.amu.edu.pl/psicl/files/9/04_Fidelholtz.pdf.

Goldwater, Sharon & Johnson, Mark. 2003. Learning OT constraint rankings using a maximum entropy model. In Spenader, Jennifer, Eriksson, Anders & Dahl, Osten (eds.). Proceedings of the Stockholm Workshop on Variation within Optimality Theory, 111-120. Stockholm: Stockholm University.

Hayes, Bruce. 2008. Introductory Phonology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hayes, Bruce & Wilson, Colin. 2008. A maximum entropy model of phonotactics and phonotactic learning. Linguistic Inquiry 39: 379-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/ling.2008.39.3.379

Hayes, Bruce, Zuraw, Kie, Siptár, Peter & Londe, Zsuzsa. 2009. Natural and unnatural constraints in Hungarian vowel harmony. Language 85: 822-863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.0.0169

Kraska-Szlenk, Iwona. 1995. The phonology of stress in Polish. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Moreton, Elliott, Pater, Joe & Pertsova, Katya. 2015. Phonological concept learning. Cognitive Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12319

Moore-Cantwell, Claire. 2015. The phonological grammar is probabilistic: New evidence pitting abstract representation against analogy. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University. Available at: http://blogs.ubc.ca/amp2015/files/2015/09/Moore-Cantwell.pdf.

Moore-Cantwell, Claire & Staubs, Robert. 2014. Modeling morphological subgeneralizations. In Kingston, John, Moore-Cantwell, Claire, Pater, Joe & Staubs, Robert (eds.). Proceedings of the 2013 meeting on phonology, Linguistic Society of America, Washington DC. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/amp.v1i1.42

Pater, Joe. 1994. Against the underlying specification of an ‘exceptional’ English stress pattern. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 13: 95-121. Available at http://twpl.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/twpl/article/view/6336/3324.

Pater, Joe. 2000. Non-uniformity in English stress: the role of ranked and lexically specific constraints. Phonology 17: 237-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0952675700003900

Pater, Joe. 2005. Learning a stratified grammar. In Brugos, Alejna, Clark-Cotton, Manuella R. & Ha, Seungwan (eds.). Proceedings of the 29th Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. 482-492.

Pater, Joe. 2010. Morpheme-Specific Phonology: Constraint Indexation and Inconsistency Resolution. In Steve Parker (ed.). Phonological Argumentation: Essays on Evidence and Motivation, 123-154. London: Equinox.

Pater Joe & Staubs, Robert. 2013. Modeling learning trajectories with batch gradient descent. Paper presented October 27th to the Northeast Computational Phonology Circle, MIT. http://people.umass.edu/pater/pater-staubs-gradient-descent-2013.pdf.

Peperkamp, Sharon, Vendelin, Inga & Dupoux, Emmanuel. 2010. Perception of predictable stress: A cross-linguistic investigation. Journal of Phonetics 38: 422-430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2010.04.001

Xu, Zheng. 2007. Inflectional morphology in Optimality Theory. PhD dissertation, Stony Brook University.

Zuraw, Kie. 2000. Patterned Exceptions in Phonology. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Copyright (c) 2016 Claire Moore-Cantwell, Joe Pater